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Journal of Health and Social Sciences 2022, 7(1) Click Free Full Open Access – CURRENT ISSUE

15 March 2022

Table of Contents

JHSS 2022, 7(1):9-13

EDITORIAL IN PUBLIC AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH

Tackling stress, burnout, suicide, and preventing the “Great resignation” phenomenon among healthcare workers (during and after the COVID-19 pandemic) for maintaining the sustainability of healthcare systems and reaching the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals.

Authors: Francesco CHIRICO1Michael LEITER

1 Post-Graduate School of Occupational Health, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy. Health Service Department, Italian State Police, Ministry of the Interior, Milan, Italy.  E-mail: francesco.chirico@unicatt.it ORCID: 0000-0002-8737-4368.
2 School of Psychology, Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia. E-mail: michael.leiter@acadiau.ca ORCID: 0000-0001-5680-0363.

Keywords: burnout; healthcare systems; Sustainable Development Goals; work-related stress.

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JHSS 2022, 7(1):14-35

SYSTEMATIC REVIEW IN OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY

Workplace violence against healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review

Authors: Francesco CHIRICO1*, Aanuoluwapo Adeyimika AFOLABI2, Olayinka Stephen ILESANMI3, Gabriella NUCERA4, Giuseppe FERRARI5, Lukasz SZARPAK6, Murat YILDIRIM7, Nicola MAGNAVITA8

1 Post-Graduate School of Occupational Health, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy. Health Service Department, Italian State Police, Ministry of the Interior, Milan, Italy. ORCID:0000-0002-8737-4368.
2 Department of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. ORCID:0000-0001-9929-2252.
3Department of Community Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Honorary Consultant, Department of Community Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. ORCID:0000-0003-0827-6442.
4Department of Emergency, Fatebenefratelli Hospital, ASST Fatabenefratelli and Sacco, Milan, Italy. ORCID:0000-0003-1425-0046.
5 SIPISS, AIPMEL, Milan, Italy.
6Institute of Outcomes Research, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Medical Academy, Warsaw, Poland. Maria Sklodowska-Curie Bialystok Oncology Center, Bialystok, Poland. ORCID:0000-0002-0973-5455.
7Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University, Turkey. University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom. Salahaddin University-Erbil, Iraq. ORCID:0000-0002-0538-0941.4
8 Post-graduate School of Occupational Health, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma, Italy. ORCID: 0000-0002-0998-7344.

Abstract

Introduction: Workplace violence (WV) against healthcare workers (HCWs) is a widespread phenomenon, which contributes to increasing occupational stress. The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the world’s population to intense stress. It is therefore questionable whether there is a correlation between the two phenomena, violence and COVID-19. This systematic review aimed to investigate prevalence and risk factors of WV against HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods: A systematic review was conducted across PubMed Central/Medline, Cochrane Library, PROSPERO and Epistemonikos databases using predefined search criteria. Only studies containing quantitative and mixed-method research from inception of the pandemic to 22 February 2022 and published in English language were included.
Results: Overall, 61 articles were retrieved, and a total of 15 studies met the full inclusion criteria and were included. Most of the studies reported both physical and psychological (verbal and non-verbal) WV, which was perpetrated by personal (family members, friends, neighbors) and/or professional relationship (bosses, co-workers, patients’ relatives, strangers). The overall prevalence of WV ranged from 18.5% to 84.5%. In many cases, victims of WV during the COVID-19 pandemic included frontline HCWs and staff working in emergency departments.
Discussion: Our findings showed a high prevalence of WV against HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Male gender, younger and less working experience, working in direct contact with patients infected by the virus were the most relevant risk factors of WV, which was mostly perpetrated by caregivers and COVID-19 patients’ family members. Occupational health services, the hospital managements and policymakers should cooperate to address this psychosocial risk factors to protect the mental health of HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: healthcare workers; mental health; occupational health; systematic review; workplace violence.

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JHSS 2022,7(1):36-52

SYSTEMATIC REVIEW IN OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY

Sleep duration, sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness, and chronotype in university students in India: A systematic review 

Authors: Christen DUNN1±, Octavia GOODMAN2±, Mariana SZKLO-COXE3*

1 MPH, College of Health Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA. E-mail: cdunn002@odu.edu ORCID: 0000-0002-7812-1414.
2 MPH, College of Health Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA. E-mail: Ogood001@odu.edu  ORCID: 0000-0002-8768-0701.
3 Ph.D., MHS, School of Community and Environmental Health, College of Health Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA. ORCID: 0000-0001-5259-8313.

± Co-first-authorship

Abstract

Introduction: Optimal sleep is an important aspect of academic performance and mental health. However, poor sleep health is often present among university students due to their lifestyle and academic requirements. University students in India have been shown to have poor sleep health. Though self-reported sleep issues have been evaluated among university students in India, these results have not been synthesized to date. We aimed to identify factors that may be associated with poor sleep health among university students in India from January 2010 to April 2021, inclusive. As a secondary aim, we sought to evaluate factors associated with sleep among university students in India during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods: A systematic review was conducted using PubMed, CINAHL, and Google Scholar to identify studies conducted in India related to sleep among university students. The studies were synthesized by aspects of sleep (sleep quality, sleep duration, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS)) and chronotype, types of university students in India (non-medical and medical) and if they examined sleep in university students during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Results: 12 articles were identified that evaluated sleep duration, sleep quality, and excessive daytime sleepiness and included university students in India. Findings suggested that between 25-72% of Indian university students reported poor sleep quality, and 17-44% experienced EDS. Similar associations were noted in both non-medical and medical undergraduate students. Students with evening chronotype vs. intermediate chronotype and morning chronotype were more likely to experience poor sleep quality. Studies conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic reported differing results of poor sleep quality and increased sleep duration.
Discussion: Demographic, psychological, and socio-behavioral factors are statistically significantly related to poor sleep quality, EDS, and short sleep duration among university students in India.

Keywords: India; sleep; sleep duration; sleep quality; university.

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JHSS 2022,7(1):53-79

SYSTEMATIC REVIEW IN OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH 

Challenges and opportunities for the employment of workers with disabilities: A systematic approach

Authors: Georgia Libera FINSTAD1*, Gabriele GIORGI2, Salvatore ZAFFINA3, Giulia FOTI4, Giulio ARCANGELI5, Nicola MUCCI6

1 Department of Human Sciences, European University of Rome, Rome, Italy. E-mail: georgialibera.finstad@unier.it ORCID: 0000-0003-3234-9197
2 Department of Human Sciences, European University of Rome, Rome, Italy. E-mail: gabriele.giorgi@unier.it ORCID: 0000-0002-7340-356X
3 Post-Graduate Medical Training Programme in Occupational Health, Catholic University of the Sacred Hearth, Rome, Italy. Occupational Medicine Unit, “Bambino Gesù” Children’s Hospital, Rome, Italy. E-mail: salvatore.zaffina@opbg.net ORCID: 0000-0003-0827-6442
4 Business@Health Lab, Rome, Italy; E-mail: giuliafoti.98@gmail.com ORCID: 0000-0002-1496-2054
5Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy. E-mail: giulio.arcangeli@unifi.it ORCID: 0000-0002-0094-0399
6Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy. E-mail: nicola.mucci@unifi.it ORCID: 0000-0003-0579-1035 

Abstract

Introduction: The analysis of inclusive human resources (HR) practices is a fundamental topic of the future of work. The aim of this review is to systematically analyze the employment cycle of people with disabilities (PWDs) focusing on the recruitment and selection phase and the subsequent career management process.
Methods: We followed a systematic approach and applied the PRISMA methodology. A literature search was performed on the Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Psycinfo databases and 28 articles were included in the literature synthesis.
Results: Results highlight that PWDs are subjected to discrimination before and after entering the labor market. Employers’ concerns are often associated with a lack of adequate resources and information on the management of this occupational population. Inclusive practices such as ability building programs, flexible working schedules, mentoring and top management commitment can be effective tools for achieving positive outcomes for workers and organizations.
Discussion and Conclusion: The employment of PWDs should be analyzed as a continuous process, providing opportunities for training and professional development. Evidence-based strategies are needed for the selection and career advancement of PWDs. Formal disability-related policies should be implemented in the workplace as part of the strategic plan.

Keywords: barriers; career management; disability; disclosure; discrimination; employment; employee selection; hiring; recruitment.

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JHSS 2022, 7(1):80-88

META-ANALYSIS IN EMERGENCY MEDICINE 

Should we use cervical collars for neck stabilization in trauma patients? Evidence from a systematic review with meta-analysis

Authors: Michal LADNY1, Gabriella NUCERA2, Michal PRUC 3*, Lukasz SZARPAK4, Francesco CHIRICO5

1Research Unit, Polish Society of Disaster Medicine, Warsaw, Poland. E-mail: m.ladny@live.com ORCID: 0000-0002-0028-853X
2Department of Emergency, Fatebenefratelli Hospital, ASST Fatebenefratelli & Sacco, Milan, Italy. E-mail: gabriellanucera@gmail.com ORCID: 0000-0003-1425-0046
3Research Unit, Polish Society of Disaster Medicine, Warsaw, Poland. E-mail: m.pruc@ptmk.org ORCID: 0000-0002-2140-9732
4Research Unit, Polish Society of Disaster Medicine, Warsaw, Poland. Institute of Outcomes Research, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Medical Academy, Warsaw, Poland. E-mail: Lukasz.szarpak@gmail.com ORCID: 0000-0002-0973-5455
4Post-graduate School of Occupational Health, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy. Health Service Department, Italian State Police, Ministry of the Interior, Centro Sanitario Polifunzionale, Milan, Italy. E-mail: francesco.chirico@unicatt.it ORCID: 0000-0002-8737-4368.

Abstract

Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of neck stabilization with cervical collar on optic nerve strength diameter.
Methods: A literature search of PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE and Web of Science databases from their inception to December 22, 2021 was conducted. The search was conducted using the terms: “cervical collar” OR “collar” AND “intercranial pressure” OR “optic nerve strength diameter” OR “ONSD” OR “traumatic” OR “brain injury” and restricted to English language documents.
Results: The pooled analysis showed that optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) without collar was 4.5 ± 0.9mm. After insertion of the cervical collar and stabilization of the cervical spine for 20 minutes, an increase in ONSD was observed (4.9 ± 1.5mm; SMD = 0.89; 95%CI: 0.39 to 1.39; p =0.01). In clinical trial ONSD at baseline (4.8 ± 0.9mm) and 20-minutes after fitting the flange (5 ± 0.9mm; SMD = 0.22; 95%CI: -0.07 to 0.51; p =0.13). In experimental trials, the pooled analysis showed statistically significantly higher ONSD values for a 20-minute cervical collar application (4.86 ± 1.74 vs. 4.35 ± 0.91mm, respectively; SMD = 1.05; 95%CI: 0.46 to 1.65; p <0.001).
Discussion and Conclusion: Our meta-analysis showed that stabilizing the cervical spine with a cervical collar increases the intracranial pressure even in healthy volunteers, with the NextSplit collar being the least stressful. Large prospective, randomized studies are needed to confirm the obtained results.

Keywords: cervical collar; trauma patient; optic nerve strength diameter; ONSD; meta-analysis.

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JHSS 2022, 7(1):89-98

ORIGINAL ARTICLE IN PSYCHOLOGY

Self-compassion mediates the relationship between mindfulness and flourishing

Authors: Murat YILDIRIM1*, Izaddin AHMAD AZIZ2, Gabriella NUCERA3, Giuseppe FERRARI4, Francesco CHIRICO5

1 Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University, Turkey.  University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom
2 Salahaddin University-Erbil, Iraq. ORCID:0000-0002-0538-0941
3 MD, Contract Professor, Department of Emergency, Fatebenefratelli Hospital, ASST Fatabenefratelli and Sacco, Milan, Italy. ORCID:0000-0003-1425-0046.
4 Psychologist, SIPISS, AIPMEL, Milan, Italy.
5MD, Contract Professor, Post-Graduate School of Occupational Health, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy. Health Service Department, Italian State Police, Ministry of the Interior, Milan, Italy. ORCID:0000-0002-8737-4368.

Abstract

Introduction: An important research avenue on flourishing is to understand the predictors and mechanisms associated with flourishing. Most evidence has been reported from western countries. However, little is known about whether the relationship between self-compassion and flourishing could be explained through mindfulness in a non-western country. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the mediating role of mindfulness in the association between self-compassion and flourishing in a sample of Arabic speaking adults.
Methods: A cross-sectional research design was used to collect data from 396 (50% females) Arab adults recruited from general public. Participants ranged in age between 19 and 59 years with a mean age of 30.7 years (SD = 10.3). Participants completed online versions of the Self-Compassion Scale – Short Form, the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory, the Flourishing Scale.
Results: The results of correlation analysis indicated significant positive correlations among self-compassion, mindfulness, and flourishing. The results of mediation analysis showed that self-compassion significantly predicted mindfulness and flourishing. Mindfulness also significantly predicted flourishing. Mediation analysis supported the hypothesis that mindfulness played a mediating role between self-compassion and flourishing.
Discussion: The results suggest the importance of mindfulness in understanding the association between self-compassion and flourishing. Intervention efforts aimed at improving flourishing may benefit from increased mindfulness and self-compassion.

Keywords: self-compassion; mindfulness; flourishing; positive psychology; Arab adults.

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JHSS 2022, 7(1):99-113

ORIGINAL ARTICLE IN PUBLIC HEALTH

Knowledge or awareness of non-communicable diseases and their associated risk factors among university students from Fiji: A cross-sectional study 

Authors: Awadhesh Kumar SHIROTRIYA1*, Kavita BATRA2

1Department of Secondary and Sports Education, Fiji National University, Fiji Islands. E-mail: Aks144@gmail.com ORCID: 0000-0003-3692-7695.
2 Kirk Kerkorian School of Medicine, Medical Research Statistician & Assistant Professor, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, United States of America. E-mail: kavita.batra@unlv.edu ORCID: 0000-0002-0722-0191.

Abstract

Introduction: Chronic diseases (aka Non-communicable diseases, NCDs) contribute to the global burden of morbidity and mortality, with a significant share of premature deaths among low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), including Fiji. The early exposure to the risk factors of NCDs affects the entire life course, and the knowledge and awareness of adolescents towards NCDs and associated risk factors is critical for health promotion. This study aims to investigate the knowledge and awareness level of chronic conditions and their risk factors among Fijian students.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a sample of 338 university students was recruited using the paper as well as web-based pre-tested survey through a convenience sampling technique. Differences in knowledge and awareness by gender, study year and program were analyzed uisng Chi-square/Fisher exact test.
Results: Our research showed a higher proportion of females were aware of the increasing prevalence of NCDs in Fiji and associated risk factors as opposed to males. Among different programs, students enrolled in physical education were more likely to be aware about the global death toll attributed to NCDs compared to those enrolled in science majors. As expected, the awareness levels were higher among second- and third-year students than freshers.
Discussion: The most prominent information sources of NCDs reported by the students were teachers, which highlight the need of developing school-based health awareness and promotion programs.

Keywords: Fiji; Health education; Health promotion; Non-communicable disease; Pacific islands; Students.

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JHSS 2022, 7(1):114-131

ORIGINAL ARTICLE IN BIBLIOMETRICS

Trends in scientific output on the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community research: A bibliometric analysis of the literature

Authors: David AN1*, Kavita BATRA2

1 Culver Academies, 1300 Academy Road, Culver, Indiana 46511, USA. ORCID: 0000-0002-3424-2740.
2UNLV Medicine Trauma and Critical Care, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 2040 W Charleston Blvd, Las Vegas, Nevada 89102, USA. E-mail: kavita.batra@unlv.edu ORCID: 0000-0002-0722-0191

Abstract

Introduction: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) represent a diverse group with special needs due to the unusual developmental experiences and social inequalities. This paper aims to explore and outline a future research direction in LGBT issues through tracing our historical understanding of this population from an aspect of scientific research.
Methods: LGBT-related peer-reviewed documents were retrieved from the PubMed database and the study period was set from the inception to 2021. Python-based methods were then performed to analyze the publication metadata and extract the most prominent research topics based on the abstract contents. Key points covered in the study were the development and trend of scientific effort and research themes in the LGBT topic, identified through the Bigram model and Latent Dirichlet Allocation algorithm.
Results: A total of 21,221 publication records were retrieved from the PubMed database. Literature analyses demonstrated that scientific research in LGBT had grown gradually but began to gain momentum since 2010, evidencing increased attention to this demographic in the last decade. Regarding the region-wise scientific effort in LGBT, the United States (U.S.) was the most productive country (with > 45% of the total publications), followed by the United Kingdom (UK), Canada, Australia, and the Netherlands. Furthermore, Peru and Thailand, besides the U.S., Australia, and Canada, were the top countries that had relatively allocated more of their scientific efforts to LGBT research based on the calculated activity indices. Topics attracting the most attention in LGBT research over time were “male sexuality and risk”, followed by “sexual development”, “health care service”, “social experience”, and “intervention strategies”.
Discussion: This study provided a broad view of the developmental trends in LGBT research from invisibility to attention through a bibliometric lens and could serve as a data-based guideline for policymakers and social scientists.

Keywords: activity index; bibliometric analysis; LGBT; research; topic modeling.

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