Table of Contents
JHSS 2021, 6(4):452-457
EDITORIAL IN PUBLIC AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH
“Total Worker Health” strategy to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic and future challenges in the workplace
Authors: Francesco CHIRICO1, Angelo SACCO2, Giuseppe FERRARI3
1 Post-Graduate School of Occupational Health, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma, Italy.
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Health Service Department, Italian State Police, Centro Sanitario Polifunzionale, Milano, Italy. ORCID:0000-0002-8737-4368.
2 Post-Graduate School of Occupational Health, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma, Italy. MD, Local Health Unit ASL RM4, Rome, Italy.
E-mail: email@example.com. ORCID:0000-0002-8737-4368.
3 Italian Society of Integrative Psycotherapy for Social Development (SIPISS), Milan, Italy. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: COVID-19; global health; occupational health; public health; total worker health.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE IN NURSING AND SPIRITUAL HEALTH
The nurses’ role in supporting patients’ spirituality in a secular age
Authors: Michael CONNOLLY1,2*, Beata DOBROWOLSKA3, Silvia CALDEIRA4, Jacqueline WHELAN5, Kathleen NEENAN5, Wilfred McSHERRY6, Linda ROSS7, Fiona TIMMINS1
1 School of Nursing, Midwifery & Health Systems, University College Dublin, Ireland.ORCID:0000-0002-6602-1803 (MC); 0000-0002-7233-9412 (FT)
2 Our Lady’s Hospice and Care Services, Harold’s Cross, Dublin, Ireland. ORCID:0000-0002-6602-1803
3 Department of Holistic Care and Management in Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical Universityof Lublin, Poland. ORCID:0000-0001-9178-9534
4 Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Health, Institute of Health Sciences, Universidade CatolicaPortuguesa, Lisbon, Portugal. ORCID:0000-0002-9804-2297
5 The School of Nursing and Midwifery, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland. ORCID:0000-0003-2600-2189(JW); 0000-0002-9546-3045 (KN)
6 Department of Nursing, School of Health, Science and wellbeing, Staffordshire University/UniversityHospitals North Midlands NHS Trust, UK and VID Bergen/Oslo, Norway. ORCID:0000-0003-0932-5875
7 Faculty of Life Sciences and Education, University of South Wales, UK. ORCID:0000-0003-3978-5952
Keywords: Healthcare; nurses; nursing education; spiritual health; workplace.
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SYSTEMATIC REVIEW IN OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
Prevalence, risk factors and prevention of burnout syndrome among healthcare workers: An umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses
Authors: Francesco CHIRICO1*, Aanuoluwapo Adeyimika AFOLABI2, Olayinka Stephen ILESANMI3, Gabriella NUCERA4, Giuseppe FERRARI5, Angelo SACCO6, Lukasz SZARPAK7, Pietro CRESCENZO8, Nicola MAGNAVITA9≠, Michael LEITER10≠
1 Post-Graduate School of Occupational Health, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy. Health Service Department, Italian State Police, Ministry of the Interior, Milan, Italy. ORCID:0000-0002-8737-4368.
2 Department of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. ORCID:0000-0001-9928-2252.
3 Department of Community Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Department of Community Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. ORCID:0000-0003-0827-6442.
4 Department of Emergency, Fatebenefratelli Hospital, ASST Fatabenefratelli and Sacco, Milan, Italy. ORCID:0000-0003-1425-0046.
5 SIPISS, AIPMEL, Milan, Italy.
6 Post-Graduate School of Occupational Health, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy. Local Health Unit ASL RM4, Rome, Italy. ORCID:0000-0002-8429-5314.
7 Institute of Outcomes Research, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Medical Academy, Warsaw, Poland. Maria Sklodowska-Curie Bialystok Oncology Center, Bialystok, Poland. ORCID:0000-0002-0973-5455.
8 Domus Misericordiae, Associazione Migranti senza Frontiere, Salerno, Italy. ORCID:0000-0001-5240-315X.
9 Post-graduate School of Occupational Health, Universit Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma, Italy. ORCID:0000-0002-0998-7344.
10 School of Psychology, Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia. ORCID:0000-0001-5680-0363.
≠ Last co-authorship
Introduction: Burnout syndrome (BOS) is a psychological syndrome characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment. This umbrella review aimed to investigate BOS among healthcare workers (HCWs).
Methods: An umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses concerning the prevalence of BOS among physicians, nurses, medical students and other HCWs, and its associated factors was conducted across PubMed Central/Medline, Cochrane Library, PROSPERO and Epistemonikos databases. Only systematic reviews and meta-analyses from inception to 15 January 2020 and restricted to English language documents were included.
Results: A total of 43 studies met the full inclusion criteria and were included. Among them, there were 3 meta-analyses, 26 systematic reviews, and 14 systematic reviews with meta-analysis. The prevalence of BOS was highest among nurses, younger persons, and trainees. The most frequent risk factors associated with BOS included stress, lack of family support, and organizational risk factors such as prolonged night shifts, length of experience, and exposure to traumatic events. Individual coping strategies such as exercise and communication with peers, and organizational strategies such as periodic review of shift schedule should be undertaken.
Discussion: BOS has profound effects on the mental health states of HCWs. Individuals and the hospital authority need to pay specific attention to work-related stress risk factors to improve the psychological wellbeing of HCWs.
Keywords: Burnout syndrome; healthcare workers; mental health; occupational health; systematic review.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE IN PUBLIC HEATH
A structural equation model of sports participation, body image and body fat rate in college students
Authors: Nan XU1, Fiona TIMMINS2, Yuexian TAO3
1 Hangzhou Normal University; Lecturer, Quzhou College of Technology, Quzhou, China. E-mail:email@example.com. ORCID:0000-0001-7357-1806.
2 UCD School of Nursing, Midwifery and Health Systems, UCD College of Health Sciences, Dublin, Ireland. E-mail: Fiona.firstname.lastname@example.org. ORCID:0000-0002-7233-9412.
3 Nursing School, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, China; E-mail: email@example.com. ORCID:0000-0003-3568-7423.
Introduction: Being overweight is a global health concern, that is especially important for nursing and health students who need to role model healthy lifestyle. This study aimed to explore the relationship between the perceptions of body image, sports participation, and body fat rate among university students in China.
Methods: Biological measurements of body fat companying with a questionnaire survey was used. Data were collected at a university in the Zhejiang province of China. A convenience sample recruited 539 university students, mostly health sciences students. Body fat rate was estimated using a body composition analyser. Questionnaire included a multidimensional body-self relations questionnaire and a physical activity rating scale. 503 questionnaires were returned rendering a response rate of 93.32%.
Results: The structural equation model shows that body image and exercise participation have a direct effect on the body fat rate of college students, and the normalized values are -3.37 and -6.81 respectively. Positive body image and more exercise participation were found to be associate with lower body fat rate.
Conclusion: Rising obesity levels need consideration in terms of nursing students in the university environment. More attention needs to be given to health promotion interventions for this cohort.
Keywords: Body fat rate; body image; college students; sports participation; structural equation model.
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JHSS 2021, 6(4):509-526
ORIGINAL ARTICLE IN OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
Prevalence and predictors of burnout syndrome among Italian psychologists following the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study
Authors: Pietro CRESCENZO1#, Francesco CHIRICO2#, Giuseppe FERRARI3, Lukasz SZARPAK4, Gabriella NUCERA5, Raffaella MARCIANO6, Livio TARCHI7, Diego DENICOLO8, Assunta MAIORINO9, Kavita BATRA10, Manoj SHARMA11
1 Domus Misericordiae, Associazione Migranti senza Frontiere, Salerno, Italy. ORCID:0000-0001-5240-315X.
2 Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Post-Graduate Specialization, Rome, Italy. ORCID:0000-0002-8737-4368.
3 Society for Integrative Psychotherapy and Social Development, Milan, Italy. ORCID:0000-0003-1244-5931
4 Institute of Outcomes Research, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Medical Academy, Warsaw, Poland. Maria Sklodowska-Curie Bialystok Oncology Center, Bialystok, Poland. ORCID:0000-0002-0973-5455.
5 Department of Medicine, ASST Fatebenefratelli and Sacco. Fatebenefratelli Hospital, Emergency Unit, Milan, Italy. ORCID:0000-0003-1425-0046.
6 Syn-cronia Association. ORCID:0000-0001-8242-4357
7 Department of Health Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, FI, Italy. ORCID:0000-0002-9931-5621.
8 InSintonia, Naples, Italy. ORCID:0000-0003-4078-6207.
9 Syn-cronia Association, Cava dei Tirreni, Italy. ORCID:0000-0003-4931-4951.
10 Office of Research, Kirk Kerkorian School of Medicine, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. ORCID:0000-0002-0722-0191.
11 Department of Social and Behavioral Health, School of Public Health, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. ORCID:0000-0002-4624-2414.
Introduction: The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and predictors of Burnout Syndrome (BOS) among Italian psychologists following the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic. As a secondary objective, geographical differences in the prevalence of BOS symptoms were investigated across regional macro-areas in this category of workers.
Methods: Using a non-probabilistic convenience sample, four-hundred sixty-eight participants responded to an online survey which included psychometric valid questions from the Maslach Burnout Inventory and The Big Five Inventory-10. Descriptive and inferential statistics were utilized to analyze the data.
Results: The overall prevalence of BOS in the study sample was nearly 17%, although no statistically significant differences were noted among volunteer (17.5%) and non-volunteer group (16.2%). Statistically significant differences were found in the Depersonalization (DP) levels. Prevalence of BOS varied across Italian regional macro areas. Neuroticism was positively associated with Emotional Exhaustion (EE) and DP. Agreeableness was negatively associated with EE and DP. Openness was negatively associated with DP.The only personality trait that did not reach any significance level across BOS dimensions was Conscientiousness. Telematic approach was positively associated with DP.
Discussion and Conclusions: In Italy, during the COVID-19 pandemic, psychologists who offer services in a volunteering setting are at high risk of developing BOS. Policymakers should develop guidelines for training and prevention programs to contain BOS and preserving the quality of care, through workplace health promotion and occupational health surveillance programs.
Keywords: Big Five; Burnout syndrome; COVID-19; personality; psychologists; occupational health; volunteerism.
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JHSS 2021, 6(4):527-543
ORIGINAL ARTICLE IN HEALTH AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR
Applying a classification and regression tree approach to identify individual, socioenvironmental, and psychological interactions associated with suicidal ideation among Latinx adolescents
Authors: Javier F. BOYAS1, Sung Seek MOON2, Yi Jin KIM3, Youn Kyoung KIM4, Tatiana VILLAREAL-OTALORA5
1 The University of Georgia, School of Social Work, 279 Williams St., Athens, GA, 30602, USA.ORCID:0000-0002-4322-8385.
2 Baylor University, School of Social Work, 811 Washington Ave, Waco, TX 76701, USA,ORCID:0000-0002-4956-5358.
3 University of Mississippi, Department of Social Work, Suite 205 P.O. Box 1848, University, MS 38677,USA, ORCID:0000-0002-4338-5145.
4 Louisiana State University, School of Social Work, 2165 Pleasant Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA.ORCID:0000-0003-3887-2499.
5 Kennesaw State University, Department of Social Work and Human Services, 520 Parliament Garden WayNW, Kennesaw, GA 30144, USA, ORCID:0000-0003-2836-4773
Introduction: The present study sought to uncover previously unknown interactions stemming from individual, socioenvironmental, and psychological factors associated with suicidal ideation among Latinx adolescents using a classification and regression tree (CART) modeling approach.
Methods: This cross-sectional study included national data from a sample of 656 Latinx adolescents who participated in the 2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Self-report data was collected on suicidal ideation, individual, socioenvironmental, and psychological factors.
Results: CART identified several interactions that classified Latinx adolescents as endorsing suicidal ideation. The first split identified parental monitoring as a significant predictor of suicidal ideation, successfully classifying over 50% of the sample (n = 360). The ensuing interaction occurred between lower parental monitoring and depression symptoms, followed by increased parental monitoring and BMI. Other interactions included sex, self-rated health, household size, and peer relationships. CART results suggest that BMI was the most influential variable associated with suicidal ideation, followed by self-rated health and parental monitoring.
Conclusion: Since suicidal thoughts and behaviors are malleable, utilizing an individual, socioenvironmental, and psychological framework would continue to provide comprehensive approaches to identifying data-driven interactions between risk and protective factors that may lessen the heightened risk of suicidal ideation among Latinx adolescents.
Keywords: Adolescents; data analytics; Hispanic Americans; suicide, suicidal ideation.
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JHSS 2021, 6(4):544-555
ORIGINAL ARTICLE IN MATERNITY AND CHILD CARE
Initial reaction to HIV positive results during pregnancy and uptake of antiretroviral treatment among adolescents and young women; what are the implications for prevention of vertical transmission of HIV in Lesotho?
Authors: Mamorapeli PUTSOANE1, Sphiwe MADIBA2*
1 Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University. School of Health Care Sciences Department of PublicHealth. Pretoria, South Africa. ORCID:0000-0003-4860-8448.
2 Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University. School of Health Care Sciences Department of PublicHealth. Pretoria, South Africa. ORCID:https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3735-1248.
Introduction: In many settings in sub-Saharan Africa, most pregnant adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) are diagnosed with HIV during routine antenatal screening. Evidence points to low uptake of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in the immediate posttesting period, which put their infants at higher risk for
HIV infection. Lesotho is one of the countries with high prevalence of HIV among this group, but limited studies have explored the experiences of pregnant AGYW with a positive diagnosis. This paper describes the initial reactions of AGYW after receiving the HIV positive results in pregnancy as well as their uptake of ART in the immediate post-testing period.
Methods: The study took place in prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) sites located in urban areas of Maseru, Lesotho. Qualitative descriptive phenomenology was adopted and 15 AGYW were
interviewed. Analysis used an inductive design with a thematic approach.
Results: Testing positive in pregnancy occurred in the context where most AGYW had not given thought to the routine antenatal HIV test. As such, they were emotionally unprepared for the positive test results. The AGYW reacted with intense shock, disbelief, fear, worry, sadness, and confusion. The intense emotions were compounded by the fear of vertical transmission of HIV and the urgency of initiating ART in the
immediate post-testing period. In spite of all these emotions, most AGYW engaged in HIV care through the services offered in the PMTCT program.
Conclusion: The primary reason for initiating ART was to protect their unborn child. Hesitancy to initiate ART at the point of HIV diagnosis has implications for PMTCT interventions. Strengthening the programing for pregnant AGYW is essential to reaching global elimination of mother-to-child transmission goals.
Keywords: Adolescents; antenatal care; antiretroviral treatment; HIV seropositive; elimination of HIV; Lesotho; pregnancy.
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JHSS 2021, 6(4):556-565
ORIGINAL ARTICLE IN PUBLIC HEALTH
Who is responsible for social responsibility in a pandemic? Insights from a qualitative study in Singapore during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic
Authors: Jane M LIM1*, Pearlyn HM NEO1, Suan Ee ONG1,2, Rayner KJ TAN1
1 Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore and National UniversityHealth System (NUHS), Singapore
2 Research for Impact Singapore, 378 Alexandra Road, Block 29 Level 2 Health Horizons, Singapore159964
Introduction: The role of social responsibility has been used to underpin the implementation of rapidly changing non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to slow COVID-19 community transmission.
Methods: To explore public awareness of COVID-19 and social responsibility in a pandemic, we conducted eight mobile app-based online focus group discussions (FGDs) with participants in Singapore between 28 March and 13 April 2020.
Results: Findings from our online FGDs indicate that social responsibility, especially during the early stages of COVID-19, was influenced by external factors such as appropriate legislation and allowances in existing societal culture, as well as action-based factors including mask wearing and safe distancing. Both
were further mitigated by individual factors that mediated an individual’s capacity and capability to comply
with rapidly changing legislation during a pandemic.
Conclusion: While similar NPIs have been imposed globally, considerable between-country differences remain in health outcomes and adherence rates, displaying the complex nature of social responsibility. Evolving the role of social responsibility should be accompanied by expanding social norms and less reliance on punitive approaches.
Keywords: COVID-19; focus group discussions; non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs); public awareness; social responsibility.
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1 School of Nursing, Midwifery & Health Systems, University College Dublin, Ireland. ORCID:0000-0002-6602-1803 (MC); 0000-0002-7233-9412 (FT)
2 Our Lady’s Hospice and Care Services, Harold’s Cross, Dublin, Ireland. ORCID:0000-0002-6602-1803
3 Department of Holistic Care and Management in Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Lublin, Poland. ORCID:0000-0001-9178-9534
4 Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Health, Institute of Health Sciences, Universidade Cattolica Portuguesa, Lisbon, Portugal. ORCID:0000-0002-9804-2297
5 The School of Nursing and Midwifery, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland. ORCID:0000-0003-2600-2189 (JW); 0000-0002-9546-3045 (KN)
6 Department of Nursing, School of Health, Science and wellbeing, Staffordshire University/University Hospitals North Midlands NHS Trust, UK and VID Bergen/Oslo, Norway. ORCID:0000-0003-0932-5875
7 Faculty of Life Sciences and Education, University of South Wales, UK. ORCID:0000-0003-3978-5952
ORIGINAL ARTICLE IN SOCIAL MEDIA HEALTHCARE INFORMATION
COVID-19 related information sources and prevention practices in Nigeria: A cross-sectional study
Authors: Sorochi ILOANUSI1, Osaro MGBERE1,2, Nchebe-Jah R ILOANUSI3, Ismaeel YUNUSA4, Ekere J ESSIEN1,2
1Department of Pharmaceutical Health Outcomes and Policy, University of Houston College of Pharmacy,Houston, Texas, USA. ORCID:https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3571-0996 (Sorochi Iloanusi); https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8157-8290 (Ekere J Essien)
2Institute of Community Health, University of Houston College of Pharmacy, Houston, Texas, USA.ORCID:https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2863-6284 (Osaro Mgbere)
3General Hospital, Onitsha, Anambra State, Nigeria.
4Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Outcomes Sciences, University of South Carolina College of Pharmacy, Columbia, South Carolina, USA. ORCID:https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9107-8561
Introduction: COVID-19 is known to have a higher transmission rate in densely populated areas, which has serious implications for populous cities, especially in resource-poor settings. This study aimed to identify the common COVID-19 related information sources used in Onitsha, a populous commercial city in Anambra State, Nigeria, and their associations with demographic characteristics and implementation of COVID-19 preventive practices.
Methods: Data from a cross-sectional survey of 140 adult residents of Onitsha in March 2020 was analyzed. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to describe the study population and determine the associations.
Results: Internet/social media (63.5%), radio (61.5%) and television (58.5%) were identified as the topmost COVID-19 information sources. Educational level was significantly associated with the use of TV (P < 0.01), WhatsApp/text messages (P < 0.0001), and internet/social media (P < 0.001). The use of internet/social media, WhatsApp/text messages, and religious places of worship were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) associated with implementing all identified recommended prevention practices.
Conclusion: Public health authorities can improve the mass adoption of COVID-19 preventive measures by utilizing the identified effective information sources to design targeted education and awareness campaigns.
Keywords: Coronavirus; COVID-19; information sources; Nigeria; prevention practices; Onitsha; SARSCoV-2.
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