Table of Contents
EDITORIAL IN GLOBAL PUBLIC HEALTH
The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on child marriage in Iran
Authors: Javad YOOSEFI LEBNI1, Vahid YAZDANI2, Arash ZIAPOUR, Fakhreddin CHABOKSAVAR4, Bahar KHOSRAVI5, Ali Akbar DEHGHAN6*
1Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org; ORCID: 0000-0002-9612-9145
2Bu Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran. Email: email@example.com
3Cardiovascular Research Center, Health Institute, Imam-Ali hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org; ORCID: 0000-0001-8687-7484
4Nursing Care Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, I.R. Iran. Email: email@example.com.
5Shahid Madani University of Azerbaijan, tabriz, Iran. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
6Department of Sociology, Shiraz University. Shiraz, Iran. Email: email@example.com.
*Corresponding Author: Ali Akbar Dehghan, Department of Sociology, Shiraz University. Shiraz, Iran. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Keywords: Coronavirus 19; COVID-19; child marriage; Iran.
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VIEWPOINT ARTICLE IN GLOBAL HEALTH POLICY AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES
Protecting hospitals and the community from the current global monkeypox outbreak: Lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic
Authors: Francesco CHIRICO1*, Kavita BATRA2, Gabriella NUCERA3, Behdin NOWROUZI-KIA4, Michal PRUC5, Lukasz SZARPAK6#, Manoj SHARMA7#
1 Post-Graduate School of Occupational Health, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy. Health Service Department, Italian State Police, Ministry of the Interior, Milan, Italy. Email: email@example.com ORCID: 0000-0002-8737-4368.
2 Department of Medical Education, Kirk Kerkorian School of Medicine at UNLV, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada, United States of America. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. ORCID: 0000- 0002-0722-0191.
3 ASST Fatebenefratelli Sacco, FatebeneFratelli Hospital, University of Milan, Milan, Italy. E-mail: email@example.com. ORCID: 0000- 0003-1425-0046.
4 Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ORCID: 0000- 0000-0002-5586-4282.
5 Research Unit, Polish Society of Disaster Medicine, Warsaw, Poland, Email: email@example.com. ORCID:0000-0002-2140-9732.
6Institute of Outcomes Research, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Medical Academy, Warsaw, Poland. Maria Sklodowska-Curie Bialystok Oncology Center, Bialystok, Poland. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ORCID: 0000- 0002-0973-5455.
7Department of Social and Behavioral Health, School of Public Health, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada, United States of America. Email: email@example.com.ORCID:0000-0002-4624-2414
*Corresponding Author: Prof Francesco Chirico, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma, Italy. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease caused by the monkeypox virus (MPXV), which produces lesions similar to smallpox among human beings. The MPXV outbreak (which is endemic to rainforest African countries) has emerged as a major global concern. In recent years, exposure to MPXV was reported among certain occupational groups, including veterinary staff, pet store employees, animal distributors, and healthcare workers (HCWs), particularly those who work in frontline positions.
Hospitals provide a conducive environment for transmitting infectious diseases(e.g., COVID-19 transmission). This warrants the need to develop an effective infection control management plan. Therefore, the authors of this commentary sought to describe a framework for workplace risk assessment and prevention strategies for controlling infection transmission in occupational settings (e.g. hospitals). Occupational health programs, vaccination campaigns at work sites, and educational initiatives to increase knowledge and awareness about effective infection control measures among medical staff and the general public will be essential to prevent future outbreaks. A comprehensive strategy based on an enhanced and multidisciplinary activity coordinated by occupational health services and close collaboration between occupational and public health stakeholders will be warranted. National outbreak preparedness and global coordination efforts for improving the syndemic surveillance of the current global outbreaks in developing and developed countries, per the “One Health” approach, may tackle even the current MPXV outbreak and prevent the spread of the virus among HCWs and the community.
Keywords: COVID-19; Hospital Infection; Hospital Preparedness; Monkeypox virus; Occupational health services.
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VIEWPOINT IN HEALTH POLICY AND COVID-19
Global COVID-19 vaccine inequality: An overview of critical factors and possible solutions
Authors:Francesco CHIRICO1*, Jaime A. TEIXEIRA da SILVA2, Khan SHARUN3, Panagiotis TSIGARIS4
1 Post-Graduate School of Occupational Health, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy. Health Service Department, Italian State Police, Ministry of the Interior, Milan, Italy. E-mail: email@example.com. ORCID:0000-0002-8737-4368
2 Independent researcher, Ikenobe 3011-2, Kagawa-ken, 761-0799, Japan. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
3 ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, 243122, Uttar Pradesh, India; email@example.com
4 805 TRU Way, Department of Economics, Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops, British Columbia, V2C 0C8, Canada; firstname.lastname@example.org
*Corresponding Author: Adjunct Professor, Francesco Chirico, Via Umberto Cagni, 21 20162 Milan, Italy. E-mail: email@example.com.
The effectiveness of the vaccines, as well as global distribution and intervention strategies in order to deal with vaccine hesitancy, remain a challenge in both developing and developed countries. Even though several COVID-19 vaccines are used globally in population-wide vaccination campaigns, it has been difficult to achieve population-wide immunity. This paper examines select factors within and between nations that have hampered the ability to achieve this level of immunity, including inequalities in production and distribution among low-, middle- and high-income countries and suggests some possible solutions or policies to address global vaccine hesitancy and the unequal distribution of COVID-19 vaccines. The allocation of COVID-19 vaccines should be based on ethical principles to ensure fair and timely administration. Better health education and communication, as well as planning and equitable vaccine allocation strategies, should be carried out by public health policymakers and stakeholders. A globally coordinated strategy that tackles vaccine inequity may reduce hospitalization and death rates, promote vaccine-induced population-wide immunity, and curb the spread of SARS-CoV-2 before the onset of new SARS-CoV-2 strains that might render ongoing mass vaccination campaigns ineffective.
Keywords: COVID-19; Hospital Infection; Hospital Preparedness; Monkeypox virus; Occupational health services.
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JHSS 2022;7(3): 283-295
REVIEW ARTICLE IN PUBLIC HEALTH
A review of inflammatory bowel disease status in USA college-aged individuals affecting transition to and adjustment in college
Authors: Lauren E. PITTS1, Amanda H. WILKERSON2, Taylor S. FERRIS1, Manish HARRIGILL1, Himmat S. BRAR3, Manoj SHARMA4, Vinayak K. NAHAR5
1 School of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, United States of America, Email:firstname.lastname@example.org. ORCID: 0000-0001-8855-0418.
2 Department of Health Science, College of Human Environmental Sciences, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, United States of America. Email: email@example.com. ORCID: 0000-0002-5116-9012.
3 Division of Digestive Diseases, School of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, United States of America, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. ORCID: 0000-0002-8819-8052.
4 Department of Social and Behavioral Health, School of Public Health, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, United States of America, Email: email@example.com. ORCID: 0000-0002-4624-2414.
5 Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, United States of America. Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine/John D. Bower School of Population Health, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, United States of America. Department of Clinical Research, School of Graduate Studies in the Health Sciences, The University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, United States of America. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. ORCID: 0000-0002-6771-1662.
Introduction: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a disease involving inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and is comprised of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Attending college while suffering from IBD can have a significant impact on the disease’s course, severity, and activity. The aim of this paper was to review previous studies on IBD in college students in order to analyze the influence of their disease on their ability to adjust to college life and perform well academically.
Methods: Searches in three databases (PubMed/Medline, ScienceDirect, and ERIC) were conducted to locate studies for the review. The review only included studies that looked into factors linked to IBD, such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis; included USA college students as the target population; were empirical research studies (not reviews, meta-analyses, or prospective papers); were published in peer-reviewed journals, and were written in English.
Results: This review included a total of seven studies. According to current research on IBD among college students, there are specific disease-related problems that make the transition from living at home to living on a college campus challenging. Having easy access to acceptable food and private restrooms, transitioning treatment between physicians, transitioning to more independent care away from home, and dealing with the disease’s perceived stigmatism and stress are the most important problems discovered among college students in the USA.
Discussion: This review suggests that students diagnosed with IBD earlier still encountered unexpected difficulties compared to their healthy peers, demonstrating the significant impact IBD may have on overall student success in college. This suggests that while a specific focus may need to be dedicated to newly diagnosed college students with IBD, any college student with IBD should be included in targeted programs aimed at providing resources and helping transition to college.
Keywords: Crohn’s disease; College students; Inflammatory bowel disease; Quality of life; Ulcerative colitis.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE IN OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
The role of organizational exercise climate for physical activity promotion of employees with metabolic syndrome: Testing a psychosocial mediator model
Authors: Anne-Kathrin HUEBNER1ǂ, Sven HAUFE2, Arno KERLING3, Gudrun PROTTE4, Pauline BAYERLE5, Hedwig Theda BOECK6, Simone ROLFF7, Thorben SUNDERMEIER8, Momme KUECK9, Silke STRUNK10, Lars NACHBAR11ǂǂ, Uwe TEGTBUR12ǂǂ, Martina DE ZWAAN13ǂǂ
1Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg, Germany. Email: email@example.com. ORCID: 0000-0002-4055-4978.
2Institute of Sports Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. ORCID: 0000-0002-5259-4352.
3Institute of Sports Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany. Email: email@example.com. ORCID: 0000-0002-8197-0548.
4Institute of Sports Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. ORCID: 0000-0002-9009-1959.
5Institute of Sports Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany. Email: email@example.com. ORCID: 0000-0001-7595-0092.
6Institute of Sports Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. ORCID: 0000-0001-9588-4336.
7Institute of Sports Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany. Email: email@example.com. ORCID: 0000-0003-4932-0796.
8Institute of Sports Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. ORCID: 0000-0003-0434-2879.
9Institute of Sports Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany. Email: email@example.com. ORCID: 0000-0002-5503-9186.
10Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg, Germany. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. ORCID: 0000-0003-1868-815X.
11 Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg, Germany. Email: email@example.com. ORCID: 0000-0002-5555-230X.
12 Institute of Sports Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. ORCID: 0000-0002-4071-3385.
13Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany. Email: deZwaan.email@example.com. ORCID: 0000-0002-7918-6957.
ǂ First authorship
*Corresponding Author: Anne-Kathrin Huebner, Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg, Germany. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Introduction: Metabolic syndrome is a widespread disease mainly caused by physical inactivity and associated with a significant risk of cardiometabolic disease. From a company perspective, the increasing prevalence is also of socio-economic importance, which is why approaches to effectively promote physical activity are of great interest. The current study aimed to examine a moderated mediation model in which organisational exercise climate facets (values and expectations, practises, communication) predict total physical activity via habit strength for physical activity as a mediating mechanism, and the strength of these associations is moderated by the level of self-control.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a sample of 165 employees with metabolic syndrome was recruited through a paper-pencil survey at the main Volkswagen plant (Wolfsburg, Germany). Multiple regression analyses, simple mediation analyses, and moderated mediation analyses were used to test our hypotheses.
Results: Analyses indicated two ways in which organisational exercise climate (OEC) relates to employees’ physical activity. First, simple mediation analyses showed that communication (OEC) is indirectly positive related to total physical activity through habit strength as a mediating mechanism. Second, moderated mediation analyses showed that organisational practises (OEC) are directly associated with higher levels of physical activity given employees have a high self-control capacity.
Discussion: These results highlight the advantages of creating a favourable organisational exercise climate for improving physical activity. Organisational efforts to promote active lifestyles may particularly benefit from increased communication about physical activity and how to stay healthy by exercising, as well as organisational incentives for exercise (e.g., reduced membership in the gym, exercise breaks, running groups in the organisation).
Keywords: metabolic syndrome; organisational exercise climate; physical activity; worksite health promotion
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE IN HEALTH BEHAVIOUR
Explaining physical activity behavior among university students in Fiji Islands using the multi-theory model of health behavior change: A cross-sectional study
Authors: Awadhesh Kumar SHIROTRIYA1*, Kavita BATRA2, Lepani WAQATAKIREWA3, Ram LAKHAN4, Manoj SHARMA5
1Secondary and Sports Education, Fiji National University, Fiji Islands. E-mail:Aks144@gmail.com. ORCID: 0000-0003-3692-7695.
2Department of Medical Education, Kirk Kerkorian School of Medicine, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, United States of America. E-mail: email@example.com ORCID: 0000-0002-0722-0191.
3 Health Policy and Strategy Specialist, Suva, Fiji Islands E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
4 Berea College Berea, Kentucky United States of America. E-mail: email@example.com ORCID: 0000-0002-5267-5195
5University of Nevada, Las Vegas, United States of America. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. ORCID: 0000-0002-4624-2414.
*Corresponding Author: Awadhesh Kumar Shirotriya, Assistant Professor, Fiji National University, Natabua, Lautoka, Fiji Islands. E-mail: Aks144@gmail.com
Introduction: The Fiji Non–Communicable Disease National Strategic Plan embraces physical
activity (PA) as an important component of its strategic directions. Therefore, it is critical to assess the correlates of PA behavior with the help of a robust theoretical framework. This study aims to examine the testing of the fourth-generation multi-theory model (MTM) of health behavior change in predicting the initiation and sustenance of PA behavior among university students in Fiji.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from 29 July 2021 to 1 September 2021 using a non-probability sample of 334 students enrolled at a Fiji national university. A 40-item MTM-based psychometric valid tool was utilized to collect the data. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation, independent samples/Welch t-tests, and hierarchical multiple regression.
Results: Of 334 participants, 15.6% reported not being engaged in any sort of PA. The sample was predominately females (65.9%), undergraduates (93.7%), and Indo-Fijians (68.0%). The physically active participants had higher mean scores of “perceived advantages,” “behavioral confidence, “changes in the physical environment,” “emotional transformation,” “practice for change,” and “changes in a social environment,” as opposed to their physically inactive counterparts. Gender, age, race/ethnicity and MTM constructs significantly predicted initiation (R2 = .525, F (5, 46) = 8.293, p<0.001; adjusted R2 = .462) and sustenance (R2 = 0.460, F (6, 46) = 6.391, p<0.001; adjusted R2 = 0.388).
Discussion: This study demonstrates the importance of developing PA promotion strategies for
university students in Fiji. MTM can play a role in delineating such strategies through the implementation of educational and promotional interventions. Motivational interviewing along with structural development, including improvement of the facilities of running track, gym, swimming pool, etc. is required to influence changes in the physical environment.
Keywords: exercise; health behavior; nursing theory; psychological theory; sedentary behavior.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE IN OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND COVID-19
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on essential workers in Europe: Subset analysis of a global online survey
Authors: Parvin EFTEKHAR1, Nasih OTHMAN2, Andrea DUNCAN3, Sultan ALOTAIBI4, Alexandra M. SCHUSTER5, Behdin NOWROUZI-KIA6
1 Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. KITE- University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. E-mail: Parvin.email@example.com ORCID: 0000-0002-2706-6064.
2 Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
3 Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. E-mail: email@example.com ORCID: 0000-0002-8190-1614.
4Department of Health Policy, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, United Kingdom. Cardiac Center, King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The LockedDown Project, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, United Kingdom. Heart Center, Segeberger Kliniken GmbH, Academic Teaching Hospital of the Universities of Kiel, Lübeck, and Hamburg, Bad Segeberg, Germany. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ORCID: 0000-0002-9165-3036.
5 Department of Health Policy, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, United Kingdom. E-mail: email@example.com ORCID: 0000-0002-4093-8752.
6 Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Krembil Research Institute-University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. E-mail: Behdin.firstname.lastname@example.org ORCID: 0000-0002-5586-4282.
*Corresponding Author: Assistant Professor Behdin Nowrouzi-Kia, Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. E-mail: email@example.com.
Introduction: This study aims to explore how essential workers in Europe differed from the rest of the population in terms of their experiences of social life, access to services, mental well-being, and perceived benefits of the lockdown.
Methods: This study used a descriptive analysis to evaluate the overall experiences of the essential workers in Europe. Data analyzed in this study is part of a larger global online cross-sectional survey conducted during April to November 2020 involving post-secondary staff, students and the general population (remote workers). Data of 19,794 participants are included in the current study, and analysis is based on a comparison of participants who self-identified as essential workers, with those who did not using the chi-square test.
Results: Mean age was 34.5 years (SD =13.0) for essential workers and 30.2 years (SD =12.4) for the general population (remote workers). While 13.6% of all respondents were essential workers, the proportion was more among older ages (30 and above), females, and those who lived in suburbs. Overall, 46.8% of participants reported increased levels of stress during week 1-2 (51% of essential workers and 46.1% of the other participants, p<0.001). More essential workers reported their social life being great than the rest of the population (25.3% vs. 16.4%, p<0.001), and COVID-19 symptoms (13.6 vs 10.5%, p<0.001). In addition, fewer reported having troubled relationships (16.3% vs. 18.6%, p<0.001) or being able to do sufficient exercise (35.7% vs. 40.5%, p<0.001) than the general population (remote workers).
Keywords: COVID-19; Lockdown; Essential workers; Europe; Mental Health.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE IN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES
Analysis of the correlation between SARS-CoV-2 transmission and meteorological parameters in Bangladesh
Authors: Md. Mushfiqur RAHAMAN1, Risala T. KHAN2, Shakila ZAMAN3, Md. Tanvir RAHMAN4*, Taslima F. SHUVA5
1 Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering, Daffodil Institute of IT, Bangladesh. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org ORCID: 0000-0002-4012-1750.
2 Institute of Information Technology, Jahangirnagar University, Bangladesh. Email: email@example.com ORCID: 0000-0001-8236-5959.
3 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, BRAC University, Bangladesh. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org ORCID: 0000-0001-9299-4708.
4 Department of Information and Communication Technology, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Bangladesh. Email: email@example.com ORCID: 0000-0002-6173-0483.
5 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Daffodil International University, Bangladesh. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org ORCID: 0000-0002-4672-4528.
*Corresponding Author: Md. Tanvir Rahman, Department of Information and Communication Technology, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Bangladesh. Email: email@example.com
Introduction: Since COVID-19 has been characterized as a worldwide epidemic, multiple studies have suggested that weather may have a role in virus transmission. This research aims to examine the correlation between meteorological parameters and SARS-CoV-2 transmission, as well as to forecast cumulative COVID-19 cases in Bangladesh.
Methods: In this study, an average incubation period of 5-6 days was used to examine the real effect of environmental parameters on SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Therefore, considering the incubation period and reporting time a standard 7-day shift in meteorological parameters from the daily COVID-19 cases was applied to measure the actual correlation. In this regard, the non-parametric correlation test (Spearman’s Rank Correlation) was performed where 95% (p < 0.05) and 99% (p < 0.01) confidence intervals were considered as an acceptance criterion.
Results: This work found a significant positive correlation (p < 0.01) for COVID-19 cases with minimum temperature, average temperature (only for division-specific analysis), wind speed, rainfall, humidity, and cloud. Furthermore, a significant negative correlation (p < 0.01) was found with atmospheric pressure and sun hours. However, the impact of maximum temperature (except for some divisions) or UV index was significantly low.
Discussion: Our findings showed that the strength of the correlation coefficient is higher for the test positivity rate rather than the confirmed case count. However, to forecast the cumulative cases of COVID-19, ARIMA (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average) may be considered the best-fitting model according to AIC (Akaike Information Criterion) and performs slightly better than Holt’s exponential smoothing model. Additionally, this study represents the comparative analysis between predicted and actual Coronavirus-19 cases during December 2021 to show how close the predicted result is to the selected model.
Keywords: Bangladesh; Correlation Forecasting; COVID-19; Meteorological Factors.
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