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Journal of Health and Social Sciences 2023, 8(4) Click Free Full Open Access – CURRENT ISSUE

15 December 2023

Table of Contents

JHSS 2022;8(4):262-269
VIEWPOINT IN OCCUPATIONAL AND PUBLIC  HEALTH
Indoor Air Quality and Indoor Environmental Quality: The role of occupational health surveillance and the cooperation between public and occupational health stakeholders
Authors: Francesco CHIRICO1*
Gaetano SETTIMO2Nicola MAGNAVITA3 
1 Post-Graduate School of Occupational Health, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy. Health Service Department, Italian State Police, Ministry of the Interior, Milan, Italy. Email: francesco.chirico@unicatt.it ORCID: 0000-0002-8737-4368.
2Italian National Institute of Health, Department of Environment and Health, Rome, Italy. E-mail: gaetano.settimo@iss.it ORCID: 0000-0003-0185-3016.
3Post-graduate School of Occupational Medicine, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy. E-mail: nicola.magnavita@unicatt.it. ORCID: 0000-0002-0988-7344
*Corresponding Author: Prof Francesco Chirico, Post-Graduate School of Occupational Health, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy. Health Service Department, Italian State Police, Ministry of the Interior, Milan, Italy. Email: francesco.chirico@unicatt.it. ORCID:  0000-0002-8737-4368

Abstract

This viewpoint emphasizes the growing significance of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) in improving health and comfort in indoor environments, a crucial concern given that individuals spend approximately 90% of their time indoors. It conducts a comprehensive review of IAQ, highlighting its profound impact on overall health and quality of life, often exceeding outdoor environmental pollution. Our paper identifies various risks associated with IAQ, particularly for vulnerable groups such as children, the elderly, and those with chronic health conditions. It details the dual nature of indoor pollutants—external sources like traffic, heating and cooling of buildings, industrial emissions, and internal sources including combustion for food preparation and heating, building materials and furnishing, paints, cleaning products materials, and human activities. These pollutants, ranging from very volatile organic-VVOC, volatile-VOC, semi-volatile organic-SVOC compounds, particulate matter-PM10, PM2.5, and biological entities, necessitate extensive interdisciplinary research. The viewpoint discusses the severe implications of IAQ, especially in developing countries, where it contributes significantly to the global disease burden. It introduces the concept of Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ), expanding the focus from just air quality to encompass lighting, acoustics, thermal comfort, and water quality. This holistic approach to IEQ is vital for ensuring health and well-being in indoor spaces. Furthermore, the paper explores the interconnection between IAQ and global health crises, such as climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic, and emphasizes the importance of maintaining good IAQ and visual and thermal comfort in workplaces. These factors are linked to improved health, productivity, and sustainable practices. The role of occupational stakeholders, employers, and medical professionals in creating a healthy work environment is critically examined. We argue for their collaboration in promoting health initiatives, ergonomic designs, and effective health surveillance. This collective approach aims to address the complexities of modern workplaces, fostering a healthier, more productive, and sustainable workforce.

Keywords: IAQ; IEQ; occupational health; occupational physicians; public health; occupational health surveillance.
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JHSS 2023;8(4):270-281
REVIEW ARTICLE IN OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
Novel measures to assess work-life balance: A systematic review of last 5 years (2018-2023)
Authors: Amelia RIZZO1, Murat YILDIRIM2, Maria Grazia MAGGIO3*, Hicham KHABBACHE4, Juan GOMEZ-SALGADO5, Mahmood BAHRAMIZADEH6, Driss AIT ALI7, Lukasz SZARPAK8, Pietro CRESCENZO9, Giada IUELE10, Nicola BRAGAZZI11, Livio TARCHI12≠, Francesco CHIRICO13≠
1Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, Italy. Department of Cognitive Sciences, Psychological, Educational, and Cultural Studies, University of Messina, Messina, Italy. Email: amrizzo@unime.it ORCID: 0000-0002-6229-6463.
2Department of Psychology, Faculty of Science and Letters, Agri Ibrahim Cecen University, Turkey. Graduate Studies and Research, Lebanese American University, Lebanon. E-mail: muratyildirim@agri.edu.tr ORCID: 0000-0003-1089-1380.
3IRCCS Bonino Pulejo Neurolesion Center, 98124, Messina, Italy. E-mail: mariagrazia.maggio@irccsme.it ORCID: 0000-0003-0757-2389.
4   Director of the UNESCO Chair “Lifelong Learning Observatory” (UNESCO/UMSBA). Laboratory of «Morocco: history, theology and languages», Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts and Human Sciences Fès-Saïss, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Fez-Morocco. Email: hichamcogn@gmail.com. ORCID:  0000-0001-9587-2829.
5 Department of Sociology, Social Work and Public Health, Facult of Labour Sciences, University of Huelva, Huelva, Spain. Safety and Health Postgraduate Programme, Universidad Espiritu Santo, Guayaquil, Ecuador. Email: salgado@uhu.es. ORCID: 0000-0001-9053-7730.
6 Orthotics and Prosthetics Department, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran. E-mail: ma.bahramizadeh@uswr.ac.ir ORCID: 0000-0002-4486-5204.
7Laboratory of «Morocco: history, theology and languages», Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts and Human Sciences Fès-Saïss, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Fez-Morocco. Email: Driss.aitali@usmba.ac.ma ORCID: 0000-0001-5043-9677. 
8Institute of Outcomes Research, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Medical Academy, Warsaw, Poland. Maria Sklodowska-Curie Bialystok Oncology Center, Bialystok, Poland. Henry JN Taub Department of Emergency Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine Houston, Houston, TX, United States. Email: lukasz.szarpak@gmail.com. ORCID: 0000-0002-0973-5455.
9Department of Education, Psychology and Communication University of Bari, Italy. E-mail: pietrocrescenzo84@gmail.com ORCID: 0000-0001-5240-315X.
10Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, Italy. Email: giadaiuele@gmail.com ORCID: 0000-0003-0174-5912.
11Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Laboratory for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (LIAM), York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada. ORCID: 0000-0001-8409-868X.
12Psychiatry Unit, Department of Health Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, FI, Italy Email: livio.tarchi@unifi.it ORCID: 0000-0002-9931-5621.
13Post-Graduate School of Occupational Health, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy. Health Service Department, Italian State Police, Ministry of the Interior, Milan, Italy. Email: francesco.chirico@unicatt.it ORCID: 0000- 0002-8737-4368.
Last Co-Authorship
*Corresponding Author: Dr Maria Grazia Maggio. E-mail: mariagrazia.maggio@irccsme.it IRCCS Bonino Pulejo Neurolesion Center, 98124, Messina, Italy.

Abstract

Introduction: In the contemporary, fast-paced, and demanding world of work, achieving an effective Work- Life Balance (WLB) has become paramount. This study aimed to conduct a brief overview of measurement tools developed over the last five years (2018-2023) to assess work-life balance.
Methods: The selection of studies was conducted in accordance with the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Critical Appraisal Tool and PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, ensuring the inclusion of high-quality research.
Results: A total of 1,816 records were screened. After the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, eight studies of 512 were deemed suitable for the current review. All newly developed tools focused on overcoming the limitations of previous instruments, and how to best capture the multidimensional nature of WLB. These novel assessments also offer a theoretical contribution on how to best operatize WLB in the clinical or research setting.
Discussion: This review provides a valuable resource by providing an up-to-date overview of measures developed in the last five years to evaluate WLB. It underscores the continued importance of this topic in contemporary society and the ongoing efforts to enhance our understanding of it. It also highlights the need for further research to refine and develop standardized cultural and contextual variations measures. Such measures are essential for fostering a better understanding of WLB in today’s diverse and ever-evolving work environments. This review underlines the significance of WLB in the modern world and the importance of continuing research efforts to keep pace with the evolving nature of work.

Keywords: Instruments; occupational health psychology; questionnaires; systematic review; work-life balance; work-family conflict.
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JHSS 2023;8(4):282-294
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW IN INTERNAL MEDICINE AND COVID-19
A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between galectin-3 levels and clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients
Authors: Kacper DZIEDZIC1, Kavita BATRA2*, Michal PRUC3, Monika TOMASZEWSKA4, Krzysztof KUREK5, Murat YILDIRIM6, Mahmood BAHRAMIZADEH7, Francesco CHIRICO8, Nicola Luigi BRAGAZZI9, Hicham KHABBACHE10, Aldo SITIBONDO11 Lukasz SZARPAK12#, Gabriella NUCERA13#
1Department of Clinical Research and Development, LUXMED Group, 02-676 Warsaw, Poland. Email: dzikac5@gmail.com. ORCID: 0000-0001-8930-2221.
2 Office of Research, Kirk Kerkorian School of Medicine at UNLV, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, United States of America. Email: kavita.batra@unlv.edu. ORCID: 0000-0002-0722-0191.
3Department of Public Health, International European University, 03187 Kyiv, Ukraine. Email: m.pruc@ptmk.org. ORCID: 0000-0002-2140-9732.
4Department of Clinical Research and Development, LUXMED Group, 02-676 Warsaw, Poland. Email: m.tomaszewska@ptmk.org.
5Department of Clinical Research and Development, LUXMED Group, 02-676 Warsaw, Poland. Email: k.kurek@ptmk.org (K.K.).  
6Department of Psychology, Agri Ibrahim Cecen University, Turkey. Email: muratyildirim@agri.edu.tr. ORCID: 0000-0003-1089-1380
7Orthotics and Prosthetics Department, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran. E-mail: ma.bahramizadeh@uswr.ac.ir ORCID: 0000-0002-4486-5204.
8Post-Graduate School of Occupational Health, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy. Health Service Department, Italian State Police, Ministry of the Interior, Milan, Italy. Email: francesco.chirico@unicatt.it. ORCID: 0000-0002-8737-4368. 
9Laboratory for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (LIAM), Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, ON M3J1P3, Canada. E-mail: nicolaluigi.bragazzi@unipr.it ORCID: 0000-0001-8409-868X.
 10Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts and Human Sciences Fès-Saïss, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Fez-Morocco. Email: hichamcogn@gmail.com. ORCID: 0000-0001-9587-2829.
11Infectious Disease Unit, University Hospital of Messina, Italy. E-mail: aldo.sitibondo@gmail.com. ORCID: 0009-0000-8534-8767.
12Institute of Outcomes Research, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Medical Academy, Warsaw, Poland. Maria Sklodowska-Curie Bialystok Oncology Center, Bialystok, Poland. Henry JN Taub Department of Emergency Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine Houston, Houston, TX, United States. E-mail: lukasz.szarpak@gmail.com. ORCID: 0000-0002-0973-5455 
13Department of Emergency, Fatebenefratelli Hospital, ASST Fatebenefratelli and Sacco, Milan, Italy. E-mail: gabriella.nucera@asst-fbf-sacco.it ORCID: 0000-0003-1425-0046.
# Last Co-authorship
*Corresponding author: Dr Kavita Batra, Office of Research, Kirk Kerkorian School of Medicine at UNLV, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, United States of America. Email: kavita.batra@unlv.edu. ORCID: 0000-0002-0722-0191.

Abstract

Introduction: Galectin-3 is a β-galactoside-binding lectin with several roles in the immune- inflammatory response. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to explain the prognostic value of Galectin-3 on COVID-19 severity and mortality from the existing literature.
Methods: PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were surveyed up to November 10, 2023, for studies reporting data on Galectin-3 levels and the severity and mortality of patients with COVID-19. We performed frequentist random-effects network meta-analysis and presented the standard mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI).
Results: Galectin-3 levels among patients with and without COVID-19 varied with the following values: 15.73±13.03 vs. 8.72±5.82 pg/mL, respectively (SMD = 2.59; 95%CI: 1.52 to 3.67; p<0.001). Galectin-3 levels were also statistically different between COVID-19 patients who were severe and those who were not (18.83±15.5 pg/mL vs. 12.43±10.29 pg/mL; SMD = 2.64; 95%CI: 1.45 to 3.83; p<0.001), as well as between COVID-19 patients who survived and those who died (6.24±6.74 pg/mL vs. 13.72±15.92 pg/mL; SMD = -1.79; 95%CI: -2.78 to -0.80; p<0.001).
Discussion: Galectin-3 seems to be a useful predictive biomarker of COVID-19 outcomes and needs further evaluation.

Keywords: Biomarker; COVID-19; Coronavirus disease 2019; endothelial cells; Galectin-3; Gal-3; mortality; SARS-CoV-2; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.
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JHSS 2023;8(4):295-307
ORIGINAL ARTICLE IN PSYCHOLOGY AND PUBLIC HEALTH
The long-term impact of COVID-19 on student mental health 
Authors: Jon CATLING1*
1School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham. Email: J.C.Catling@bham.ac.uk.  ORCID: 0000-0002-2468-385X.
*Corresponding Author:Professor Jon Catling,  School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham. E-mail: J.C.Catling@bham.ac.uk

Abstract

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting restrictions placed upon society have had a profound impact on both physical and mental health, particularly for young people. The current study assesses student mental health pre, within and post COVID.
Method: Eight hundred and fourteen first year undergraduate students completed a battery of self- report questionnaires to assess for depression, mobile phone use, self-esteem, resilience and social support with data being collected over a three-year period. The data from each year was compared (216, 218 and 380 students respectively). Findings: Statistical analysis revealed that COVID-19 had a significant impact on self-reported levels of depression, smartphone use, self-esteem, resilience and social support. Multiple regression analysis revealed that smart phone use and resilience were significant predictors of levels of depression.
Discussion and Conclusion: Overall, we found far higher-than-expected mental health problems within the student cohort. These findings are discussed in relation to potential interventions. The findings suggest that COVID-19 has had a major impact upon student mental health, and that we have not yet seen a recovery within our new ‘post-COVID’ times.

Keywords: COVID-19; mental health; resilience; SARS-CoV-2; self-esteem; students.
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JHSS 2023;8(4):308-322
ORIGINAL ARTICLE IN PSYCHOLOGY 
The contribution of subjective wellbeing to the improvement of the academic performance of university students through time management as a mediator factor: A structural equation modeling
Authors: Hicham KHABBACHE1, Abdelhalim CHERQUI2, Khalid OUAZIZI2, Driss AIT ALI2*, Zakaria ABIDLI3, Abdelaziz ALLIOUI4, Joumana ELTURK5, Mahmood BAHRAMIZADEH6, Murat YILDIRIM7, Nicola Luigi BRAGAZZI8, Gabriella NUCERA9, Lukasz SZARPAK10, Amelia RIZZO11#, Francesco CHIRICO12#
 1Director of the UNESCO Chair “Lifelong Learning Observatory” (UNESCO/UMSBA). Laboratory of «Morocco: history, Islamic sciences and languages», Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts and Human Sciences Fès-Saïss, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Fez-Morocco. E-mail: hichamcogn@gmail.com. ORCID:  0000-0001-9587-2829 (H.K.)
2Ph.D. Candidate, Laboratory of «Morocco: history, Islamic sciences and languages», Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts and Human Sciences Fès-Saïss, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Fez-Morocco. E-mail: abdelhalim.cherqui@usmba.ac.ma. ORCID: 0000-0002-6947-5712 (A.C.). E-mail: khalid.ouazizi@usmba.ac.ma. ORCID: 0000-0002-3011(K.O.). E-mail: Driss.aitali@usmba.ac.ma. ORCID: 0000-0001-5043-9677(D.A.A). 
3 Faculty of Science, Ibn Tofail University, kenitra, Morocco. E-mail: abdelazizallioui20@gmail.com
4 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts and Human Sciences Fès-Saïss, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Fez-Morocco. E-mail: abdelazizallioui20@gmail.com.
5 Health Sciences Laboratory, International University of Casablanca. E-mail: joumana.elturk@uic.ac.ma
6 Orthotics and Prosthetics Department, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran. E-mail: ma.bahramizadeh@uswr.ac.ir ORCID: 0000-0002-4486-5204.
7Department of Psychology, Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University, Turkey, E-mail: muratyildirim@agri.edu.tr. ORCID: 0000-0003-1089-1380.
8 Laboratory for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (LIAM), Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada. E-mail: robertobragazzi@gmail.com ORCID: 0000-0001-8409-868X 
9Department of Emergency, Fatebenefratelli Hospital, ASST Fatebenefratelli and Sacco, Milan, Italy. E-mail: gabriellanucera@gmail.com. ORCID: 0000-0003-1425-0046
10Institute of Outcomes Research, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Medical Academy, Warsaw, Poland. Maria Sklodowska-Curie Bialystok Oncology Center, Bialystok, Poland. Henry JN Taub Department of Emergency Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine Houston, Houston, TX, United States. E-mail: lukasz.szarpak@gmail.com. ORCID: 0000-0002-0973-5455.
11 Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, Messina, Italy. Email: amrizzo@unime.it. ORCID: 0000-0002-6229-6463.
21Post-Graduate School of Occupational Health, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy. Email: francesco.chirico@unicatt.it. ORCID: 0000-0002-8737-4368.
#Last Co-Authorship
*Corresponding Author:Mr Driss Ait Ali, Laboratory of «Morocco: history, Islamic sciences and languages», Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts and Human Sciences Fès-Saïss, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Fez-Morocco. E-mail: Driss.aitali@usmba.ac.ma

Abstract

Introduction: In recent years, there has been a growing focus on assessing life satisfaction among students, as a way of measuring their overall wellbeing. This study aims to investigate how positive feelings (PF) and negative feelings (NF) predict academic performance (AP) through time management (TM) as a mediator in this process.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among Moroccan students from the University of Sidi Mohamed ben Abdullah in Fez. A total of 540 students (288 females, 53.3%; 252 males, 46.7%; with a mean age of 21.51 and a standard deviation of 3.86) completed a pencil and paper questionnaire. A questionnaire was adopted as a tool in this research. Positive emotions (Pe), Negative emotions (Ne), and Life satisfaction were measured on a five-rank scale for each variable (strongly agree = 5, strongly disagree = 1).
Results: The results of using structural equation modeling showed that the life satisfaction factor, which includes two dimensions, PF and NF, has a significant influence on academic performance.
Discussion: Creating a supportive and positive learning environment can enhance students’ wellbeing and improve academic performance.

Keywords: Academic performance; life satisfaction; positive and negative feelings; time management.
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JHSS 2023;8(4):323-336
ORIGINAL ARTICLE IN COVID-19 AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 
Marriage continues to protect: Social support, stress, and perceptions of health just prior to the COVID-19 pandemic using cross-sectional data from a crowdsourced survey in the United States
Authors: Adrian J. ARCHULETA1
1 Kent School of Social Work and Family Science, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, United States of America. E-mail: ajarch01@louisville.edu ORCID: 0000-0002-0618-6761.
*Corresponding Author: Prof Adrian J. Archuleta, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, United States of America. E-mail: ajarch01@louisville.edu

Abstract

Introduction: Most studies have focused on the effects of the COVID-19 lockdown on social relationships. However, few studies have examined differences in health, social support, perceived stress, and quality of life (QoL) just prior to the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States (U.S.). Historically, marriage has been a protective factor that buffers psychological distress and enhances a person’s QoL. Yet, it is unclear whether some relationship groups entered the pandemic with these protective benefits over others. Therefore, the current study examines differences between relationship status groups’ subjective assessment of health, stress, and social support prior to the widespread effects of COVID-19 in the United States.
Methods: In this study, data were used from a cross-sectional social network study completed just prior to the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S. Individuals between the ages of 18 and 65 (N =284) years were recruited from a crowdsource platform to complete health, social support, and perceived stress measures.
Results: Among the sample, 66% reported psychological QoL scores below 60, followed by social QoL (60%), environment QoL (48%), and physical QoL (39%). Bivariate results identify positive correlations between social support, social network size, and QoL domains. Conversely, perceived stress was negatively correlated with these variables. ANCOVA results indicate that those who were married reported significantly higher psychological (F3, 275 = 3.73, p = .012), social (F3, 275 = 16.50, p < .001), and environmental (F3, 275 = 6.03, p < .001) QoL and less stress (F3, 275 = 5.75, p < .001) than single or cohabiting individuals. However, those in a committed relationship (not cohabiting) did not substantially differ from those who were married.
Discussion: Some groups entered the COVID-19 pandemic with greater protective benefits than others. In the current study, those who were married and in a committed relationship reported better QoL compared to other groups. Understanding the protective benefits experienced by particular groups may help policymakers, healthcare professionals, and service providers understand the full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: Academic performance; life satisfaction; positive and negative feelings; time management.
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JHSS 2023;8(4):337-356
ORIGINAL ARTICLE IN HEALTH MANAGEMENT & HEALTH POLICY 
Measurement and predictors of the financial performance of public health enterprises in Italy
Authors: Peter PERGER1*, Achim HECKER2
1 UMIT TIROL – Private University for Health Sciences and Health Technology, Hall in Tirol, Austria, peter.perger@gmail.com. ORCID: 0000-0002-8031-6245.
2 UMIT TIROL – Private University for Health Sciences and Health Technology, Hall in Tirol, Austria and, Digital University of Applied Sciences, Berlin, Germany, achim.hecker@dbuas.de. ORCID:. 0000-0001-6531-7832.
*Corresponding Author: Peter Perger, UMIT TIROL – Private University for Health Sciences and Health Technology, Hall in Tirol, Austria, peter.perger@gmail.com

Abstract

Introduction: In the healthcare sector, hospitals are by far the largest producers. As their costs continue to rise, sustaining long-term financial sustainability is becoming increasingly difficult. The measurement of healthcare providers’ financial performance is less developed in European countries compared to others; structured information on financial performance is especially scarce when providers are publicly financed.
Methods: This study constructs and validates a multidimensional financial performance measure (common factor approach) by the example of Public Health Enterprises (PHEs) in Italy, based on publicly available data. In a second step, several predictor variables are examined in a PLS-SEM model (partial least squares – structural equation model), including the environmental factor umbrella institutions’ financial performance (Region), structural factors size (absolute), size class, teaching/scientific function and specialization, operational factor occupancy and complexity of treatment and the staffing factor non-medical staff rate.
Results: The proposed measure aggregates multiple dimensions of financial performance (e.g. profitability, liquidity, capital structure) and satisfies all necessary conditions of construct reliability and validity. For PHEs in Italy, financial performance is significantly negatively influenced by the Region’s financial performance (financial recovery plans) and the complexity of treatment, whereas medium-sized and specialized providers show comparatively significantly better performance levels. For the variables: size (absolute), teaching/scientific function, occupancy, and non-medical staff rate, no significant influence could be found.
Discussion: This study provides insights into the financial performance of PHEs and is useful in identifying risks (negative influencing predictors and their trend) as well as favorable circumstances (positive influencing predictors and their trend). Moreover, different policymakers (the central government, the central bank, regions, and supervisory bodies, such as the court of auditors) may take an advantage from using this information and methodology to ensure the healthcare system is sustainable and adequately controlled in the long run. Our approach may also be useful for banks and credit institutions, or hospital pharmaceutical and medical device suppliers in estimating financial risks associated with their counterparty.

Keywords: Financial performance; healthcare provider; hospitals; PLS-SEM; public health enterprises.
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JHSS 2023;8(4):357-367
ORIGINAL ARTICLE IN OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY 
The relationship between mindfulness, work-related stress management, and job satisfaction in a sample of Italian correctional officers
Authors: Federico ALESSIO1*, Gabriele GIORGI2, Georgia Libera FINSTAD3, Giulia FOTI4, Anna CONTARDI5, Sara PELLI6, Antonio LUMIA7, Francesco CHIRICO8, Amelia RIZZO 9, Giorgia BONDANINI10
1Business@Health Laboratory, European University of Rome, Rome, Italy. Department of Human Sciences, European University of Rome, Rome, Italy. E-mail: federico.alessio@unier.it. ORCID:  0000-0002-0769-0783.
2Business@Health Laboratory, European University of Rome, Rome, Italy. Department of Human Sciences, European University of Rome, Rome, Italy. E-mail: gabriele.giorgi@unier.it. ORCID:  0000-0002-7340-356X.
3Business@Health Laboratory, European University of Rome, Rome, Italy. Department of Human Sciences, European University of Rome, Rome, Italy. E-mail: georgialibera.finstad@unier.it. ORCID:  0000-0003-3234-9197.
4Business@Health Laboratory, European University of Rome, Rome, Italy. Department of Human Sciences, European University of Rome, Rome, Italy. E-mail: giulia.foti@unier.it ORCID:  0000-0002-1496-2054.
5 Department of Human Sciences, European University of Rome, Rome, Italy. E-mail: anna.contardi@unier.it. ORCID:  0000-0001-5021-2966. 
6Department of Human Sciences, European University of Rome, Rome, Italy. E-mail: sara.pelli@unier.it. 
7Business@Health Laboratory, European University of Rome, Rome, Italy. Department of Human Sciences, European University of Rome, Rome, Italy. E-mail: antonio.lumia@unier.it. 
8Post-Graduate School of Occupational Health, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy. Health Service Department, Italian State Police, Ministry of the Interior, Milan, Italy. Email: francesco.chirico@unicatt.it. ORCID:  0000-0002-8737-4368.
9Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, Messina, Italy. E-mail: amrizzo@unime.itORCID: 0000-0002-6229-6463
10Department of Human Sciences, European University of Rome, Rome, Italy. E-mail: giorgia.bondanini@unier.it. ORCID:  0000-0002-2421-3217.
*Corresponding Author: Prof Gabriele Giorgi. Business@Health Laboratory, European University of Rome, Rome, Italy. Department of Human Sciences, European University of Rome, Rome, Italy. E-mail: gabriele.giorgi@unier.it. ORCID:  0000-0002-7340-356X

Abstract

Introduction: The present research aims to investigate the relationship between mindfulness, work- related stress management, and job satisfaction in the correctional context.
Methods: The study enlisted the participation of 131 Italian correctional officers (F = 72,5%) in working age. The quantification of mindfulness levels was achieved by implementing the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire-short form (FFMQ-SF). A subset of the Organizational-Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (ORG EIQ) facilitated the assessment of work-related stress management. A 5-item Likert scale was employed to gauge job satisfaction. Descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) of the sample were analyzed. Subsequently, reliability analyses were performed using Cronbach’s alpha. Finally, a simple mediation analysis was conducted to define the role of work-related stress management, and the direct, indirect, and total effects were calculated.
Results: Concerning the indirect effect, mindfulness had a significant impact on work-related stress management [β=0.42; p<.05], which, in turn, showed a significant effect on job satisfaction [β=0.26; p<.001].
Discussion and Conclusion: Our findings highlight mindfulness’s potential and beneficial effects within social and occupational contexts, especially in the case of high-risk populations such as correctional officers.

Keywords: Correctional Officers; mindfulness; organizational Contexts; stress; job satisfaction; well-being.
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