Publications

Journal of Health and Social Sciences 2021, 6(3) Click Free Full Open Access – CURRENT ISSUE

30 September 2021

Table of Contents

JHSS 2021,6(3):309-312

EDITORIAL IN PUBLIC AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH

Call for scholarly networking between occupational and public health stakeholders to address the COVID-19 pandemic and new global health challenges in the post-COVID-19 era: The case of scientific collaboration between SIPISS, AIPMEL and the Summer School on Total Worker Health

Authors: Francesco CHIRICO1, Salvatore ZAFFINA2, Giuseppe FERRARI3

1 Post-Graduate School of Occupational Health, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma, Italy.
E-mail: medlavchirico@gmail.com. ORCID: 0000-0002-8737-4368.
2 Health Directorate, Occupational Medicine Unit, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

E-mail: salvatore.zaffina@opbg.net. ORCID: 0000-0003-0827-6442.
3 Italian Society of Integrative Psycotherapy for Social Development (SIPISS), Milan, Italy. 

Keywords: COVID-19; occupational health; global health; public health; total worker health.

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JHSS 2021,6(3):313-318

EDITORIAL IN OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH

Total Worker Heath strategies in Italy: New challenges and opportunities for occupational health and safety practice

Authors: Reparata Rosa DI PRINZIO1, Antonio Giuseppe NIGRI2, Salvatore ZAFFINA3*

1 Post-Graduate School of Occupational Health, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy; reparatarosa.diprinzio01@icatt.it. ORCID: 0000-0001-5956-1038.
2 Health Director, Health Directorate, ASL Foggia, Foggia, Italy; a.nigri@aslfg.it. ORCID: 0000-0002-4423-9334.
3 Head, Health Directorate, Occupational Medicine Unit, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital IRCCS, Rome, Italy; salvatore.zaffina@opbg.net. ORCID: 0000-0002-8858-5423.

Keywords: Occupational health; Total Worker Health; salutogenesis; workplace health promotion. 

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JHSS 2021,6(3):319-332

SYSTEMATIC REVIEW IN OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY

Working from home in the context of COVID-19: A systematic review of physical and mental health effects on teleworkers

Authors: Francesco CHIRICO1, Salvatore ZAFFINA2, Reparata Rosa DI PRINZIO3, Gabriele GIORGI4, Giuseppe FERRARI5, Ilaria CAPITANELLI6, Angelo SACCO7, Lukasz SZARPAK8, Gabriella NUCERA9, Giuseppe TAINO10, Aanuoluwapo AFOLABI11, Olayinka ILESANMI12

1 Graduate Research Assistant, Department of Environmental & Occupational Health, School of Public Health, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89119, USA.
MBBS, Ph.D., MCHES, Professor, Department of Environmental & Occupational Health, School of Public Health, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89119, USA.
Ph.D., MPH, BDS, Biomedical Statistician, Office of Research, Kirk Kerkorian School of Medicine, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89102, USA.

Abstract

Introduction: Working from home (WFH) has been endorsed in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic for all cadre of workers. This study aimed to describe the mental and physical negative effects of WFH among workers during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods: A rapid systematic review of literature was conducted on PubMed/Medline using pre-defined search terms. For inclusion in this rapid review, studies were required to focus only on previously healthy adults, white collar/professional employees, and teachers (full-time or part-time) working from home during working hours, and to include mental or physical health related outcomes of workers. Data extraction was carried out using a standardized form and included country of study, study design, details of participants, industry setting, measure used, and health outcome of interest. Overall, 1,447 articles were retrieved, and 15 of these were included in the systematic review.
Results: Physical effects of WFH included reduced physical activity, increased consumption of junk food, weight gain, poor sleep quality, and musculoskeletal pain. Mental effects of WFH included increased levels of anxiety, depression, stress, headache, fatigue, and lower job satisfaction. Furthermore, a significant decline in workplace comfort resulted in a reduction in workers’ efficiency and job satisfaction.
Discussion and Conclusions: Due to the rapid stay-at-home recommendations required to break the chain of COVID-19 pandemic, WFH became pertinent for many categories of workers. Therefore, it is required that everyone identifies context-based strategies for healthy coping in ways that do not alter work functioning.

Keywords: Anxiety; COVID-19; depression; lockdown; teleworking.

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JHSS 2021,6(3):333-348

SYSTEMATIC REVIEW IN HEALTH BEHAVIOR AND ONCOLOGY

Barriers and facilitators to lung cancer screening in the United States: A systematic review of the qualitative literature

Authors: Amir R. REIHANI1, Jalil AHARI2, Edward P. MANNING3, Hilary C. CAIN4, Brett C. BADE5, Heather G. ZIMMERMAN6

1 Yale-Affiliated Griffin Hospital – Internal Medicine, Derby, CT, USA. E-mail AReihani@GriffinHealth.org. ORCID: 000-0003-1717-9572.
2 Pulmonary and Critical Care, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA.
E-mail: jahari@mfa.gwu.edu.
3 Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Connecticut Healthcare System; New Haven, CT, USA. E-mail: edward.manning@yale.edu.
4 Veterans Affairs Connecticut Healthcare System and the Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. E-mail: hilary.cain@va.gov.
5 Veterans Affairs Connecticut Healthcare System, Yale School of Medicine, Section of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, West Haven, CT, USA. E-mail: brett.bade@yale.edu.
6 Moore School of Education, Carolina University, 420 S, Broad St, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

E-mail: ZimmermanH@Carolinau.edu. 

Abstract

Introduction: Lung cancer is the second most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in men and women in the United States. We sought to identify factors associated with Lung Cancer Screening (LCS) participation.
Methods: To identify barriers and facilitators to lung cancer screening, we systematically reviewed the literature for qualitative research studies evaluating lung cancer screening conducted in the United States. Articles were analyzed using a grounded approach (open coding, axial coding, and selective coding). Findings are discussed using the Socio-ecological Model (SEM), a theoretical model of health behaviors. Themes were identified and organized by their relevance to the SEM: individual patient, individual provider, interpersonal, cultural, and organizational levels.
Results: Themes facilitating participation include: prioritizing patient education, quality of communication, quality of provider-initiated encounter/coordination of care (individual patient and provider levels), quality of the patient-provider relationship (interpersonal level); perception of a life’s value and purpose (cultural level); and, quality of tools and care coordination (organizational level). Themes coded as barriers include: knowledge/capacity, behavior/attitude, comorbidities, and perception (individual patient level); education, pitfalls, process, and policies (provider level); patient-provider relationship, patient education, and quality communication (interpersonal level); distrust in the system, fatalistic beliefs, perception of aging (cultural level); and, access to resources, care coordination, and implementing lung cancer screening (LCS; organizational level).
Conclusion: Few qualitative research studies are available evaluating barriers and facilitators to LCS participation in the US. Major facilitators of lung cancer screening include patient education, high-quality communication, perception of life’s value, and decision-making tools. Major barriers to lung cancer screening include knowledge, patient-provider rapport, distrust in the system, and access to resources.  More qualitative studies are required to determine if these identified barriers and facilitators are transferrable to all LCS eligible population.

Keywords: Lung cancer screening; participation; qualitative; narrative review.

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JHSS 2021,6(3):349-366

NARRATIVE REVIEW IN RADIOPROTECTION

Blood cell gene expression profiles: A narrative review of biomarkers and effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure

Authors: Nadia PANERA1, Vincenzo CAMISA2, Rita BRUGALETTA3, Maria Rosaria VINCI4, Annapaola SANTORO5, Emanuele COSCIA6, Anna PASTORE7, Vittorio CANNATÀ8, Fabriziomaria GOBBA9, Alberto MODENESE10, Francesco CHIRICO11, Nicola MAGNAVITA12*, Anna ALISI13*, Salvatore ZAFFINA14*

1 Molecular Genetics of Complex Phenotypes Research Unit, IRCCS Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, Rome – Italy. E-mail: nadia.panera@opbg.net. ORCID: 0000-0002-5365-3123.
2 Occupational Medicine, Health Directorate, IRCCS Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, Rome – Italy. E-mail: vincenzo.camisa@opbg.net. ORCID: 0000-0003-1935-4282.
3 Occupational Medicine, Health Technology Assessment and Safety Research Unit, Clinical-Technological Innovations Research Area, IRCCS Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, Rome – Italy. E-mail: rita.brugaletta@opbg.net. ORCID: 0000-0002-2970-1455.
4 Occupational Medicine, Health Directorate, IRCCS Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, Rome – Italy. E-mail: mariarosaria.vinci@opbg.net. ORCID: 0000-0002-2631-4572.
5 Occupational Medicine, Health Directorate, IRCCS Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, Rome – Italy. E-mail: annapaola.santoro@opbg.net.  ORCID: 0000-0002-1883-7867.
6 Occupational Medicine, Health Technology Assessment and Safety Research Unit, Clinical-Technological Innovations Research Area, IRCCS Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, Rome – Italy. E-mail: emanuele.coscia@opbg.net.  ORCID: 0000-0002-9842-0649.
Laboratory of Biochemistry, IRCCS Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, Rome – Italy. E-mail: anna.pastore@opbg.net. ORCID: 0000-0002-0990-9419.
8 Medical Physics Unit, IRCCS Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, Rome – Italy. E-mail: vittorio.cannata@opbg.net ORCID: 0000-0002-8232-8725.

9 Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena & Reggio Emilia, Modena – Italy. E-mail: fabriziomaria.gobba@unimore.it.  ORCID: 0000-0002-1267-1632.
10 Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena & Reggio Emilia, Modena – Italy. E-mail: alberto.modenese@unimore.it.  ORCID: 0000-0002-0850-5615.
11 Post-Graduate School of Occupational Health, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy. Health Service Department, Italian State Police, Ministry of the Interior, Rome, Italy. E-mail: francesco.chirico@unicatt.it. ORCID: 0000-0002-8737-4368.
12 Post-Graduate School of Occupational Health, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Rome – Italy. Department of Woman, Child & Public Health, IRCCS A. Gemelli Policlinic Foundation – Italy. E-mail: nicolamagnavita@gmail.com  ORCID: 0000-0002-0988-7344.
13 Molecular Genetics of Complex Phenotypes Research Unit, IRCCS Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, Rome – Italy. E-mail: anna.alisi@opbg.net ORCID: 0000-0001-7241-6329.
14 Occupational Medicine, Health Directorate, IRCCS Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, Rome – Italy. E-mail: salvatore.zaffina@opbg.net ORCID: 0000-0002-8858-5423

Abstract

Ionizing radiation (IR) is a ubiquitous environmental agent whose effects on organisms are well known. This review provides a summary about definitions and man-made low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) sources and dosimeters used in radiation protection. Moreover, the main purpose of this article was to overview the pro-oncogenic effects of LDIR, and to provide experimental evidence that reinforce the use of gene expression data as biomarkers of LDIR effects. Our review showed that basic studies on biological response to LDIR are considered priority. Further, understanding occupational exposure to LDIR may provide valuable information to organize the prevention and prevent from the onset of long-term health effects in radiation workers. Currently, the biodosimetry-based assessment in certain high-risk occupational groups may be performed by using peripheral blood cells as samples for testing and validation of biomarkers specificity and sensitivity. Most of the studies on this topic are aimed at establishing new biomarkers and approaches to biological dosimetry, for allowing non-invasive monitoring of long-term health effects of LDIR. Analysis on changes in gene-expression, which is an early specific biological response to LDIR, could provide rapid estimates of individual dose in occupational cohorts, improving the management of periodical medical examination in subjects exposed to LDIR sources.

Keywords: Ionizing radiation; low dose; occupational health; biological dosimetry; gene expression; PMBC.

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JHSS 2021,6(3):367-378

ORIGINAL ARTICLE IN OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH

Need for psychological support and disability management programs during and after the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy: Preliminary findings from a hospital-based occupational health surveillance program

Authors: Reparata Rosa DI PRINZIO1*, Giorgia BONDANINI2, Federica DE FALCO3, Maria Rosaria VINCI4, Vincenzo CAMISA5, Annapaola SANTORO6, Nicola MUCCI7, Guendalina DALMASSO8, Gabriele GIORGI9, Nicola MAGNAVITA10†, Salvatore ZAFFINA11†

1 Post-Graduate School of Occupational Health, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy. E-mail: reparatarosa.diprinzio01@icatt.it ORCID: 0000-0001-5956-1038.
2 Health Directorate, Occupational Medicine Unit, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital IRCCS, Rome, Italy. E-mail: giorgia.bondanini@opbg.net
3 Health Directorate, Occupational Medicine Unit, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital IRCCS, Rome, Italy. E-mail: federica.defalco@opbg.net
4 Health Directorate, Occupational Medicine Unit, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital IRCCS, Rome, Italy. Health Directorate, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital IRCCS, Rome, Italy. E-mail: mariarosaria.vinci@opbg.net. ORCID: 0000-0002-2631-4572.
5 Health Directorate, Occupational Medicine Unit, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital IRCCS, Rome, Italy. Health Directorate, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital IRCCS, Rome, Italy. E-mail: vincenzo.camisa@opbg.net. ORCID: 0000-0003-1935-4282.
6 Occupational Medicine Unit, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital IRCCS, Rome, Italy. Health Directorate, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital IRCCS, Rome, Italy. E-mail: annapaola.santoro@opbg.net.
7 Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy. E-mail: nicola.mucci@unifi.it
8 Health Directorate, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital IRCCS, Rome, Italy. E-mail: guendalina.dalmasso@opbg.net
9 Department of Psychology, European University of Rome, Rome, Italy. E-mail: gabriele.giorgi@unier.it
10 Occupational Medicine Unit, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital IRCCS, Rome, Italy. Health Directorate, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital IRCCS, Rome, Italy. E-mail: salvatore.zaffina@opbg.net ORCID: 0000-0002-8858-5423.
11 Department of Woman, Child & Public Health, A. Gemelli Policlinic Foundation IRCCS, Rome, Italy. E-mail: nicolamagnavita@gmail.com  ORCID: 0000-0002-0988-7344.

Abstract

Introduction: Since the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers (HCWs) have undoubtedly experienced overwhelming levels of strain associated with social and occupational stressors. This study aimed to investigate the potential psychological effects experienced by hospital workers and HCWs and their associated demographical and occupational characteristics during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a public hospital in Rome, Italy, from June 2020 to July 2021. 635 hospital workers (HCWs, administrative and technicians) were enrolled in the study. The “Psychological Injury Risk Indicator” questionnaire was used. Statistical analyses have been made using Student’s T test for categorical binomial variables and analysis of variance for multi-categorical variables. Logistic regression analysis was then performed.
Results: 30.6% of the sample was at risk for general psychological impairment; reduced energy recovery was found in 48.0% and sleep problems in 44.7% of them. Female workers reported a two-fold risk for potential psychological impairment compared to male colleagues. Nurses presented a three-fold risk while physicians a two-fold risk for the overall score. Additionally, physicians had a four-fold risk to develop a lack of energy recovery and a three-fold risk for chronic fatigue. Technicians showed a significant double risk for sleep problems and chronic fatigue as well as a three-fold risk for reduced energy recovery. Administrative personnel reported a tendency on sleep problems. Interestingly, agile working was a two-fold protecting factor. No-night shifters have a half risk for reporting problems in energy recovery.
Discussion and Conclusion: The measure of agile working is effective to mitigate the impacts of COVID-19 on mental health by protecting and promoting the psychological wellbeing of HCWs during and after the outbreak.

Keywords: COVID-19; burnout syndrome; mental health; PTSD; occupational health surveillance; work-related stress.

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JHSS 2021,6(3):379-390

ORIGINAL ARTICLE IN COVID-19 AND PUBLIC HEALTH 

Lockdown measures and COVID-19 related deaths during the first and second COVID-19 waves in Italy: A descriptive study

Authors: Francesco CHIRICO1*, Angelo SACCO2, Gabriella NUCERA3, Giuseppe FERRARI4, Maria Rosaria VINCI5, Salvatore ZAFFINA6*, Lukasz SZARPAK7, Olayinka Stephen ILESANMI8

1 Post-graduate School of Occupational Health, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy.  Health Service Department, Italian State Police, Milan, Italy.
2 Local Sanitary Unit Roma 4, Civitavecchia, Italy. Post-graduate School of Occupational Health, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy. E-mail: angelo.sacco@alice.it. ORCID: 0000-0002-8429-5314.

3 Fatebenefratelli Hospital, University of Milano, Milan, Italy. E-mail: gabriellanucera@gmail.com. ORCID: 0000-0003-1425-0046.
4 Italian Society for Psychotherapy and Social Development (SIPISS). Milan, Italy. E-mail: ferrari@sipiss.it.
5 Occupational Medicine, “Bambino Gesù” Children’s Hospital, IRCCS – Rome, Italy. E-mail: mariarosaria.vinci@unicatt.it.

6 Post-graduate School of Occupational Health, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy.   Occupational Medicine, “Bambino Gesù” Children’s Hospital, IRCCS – Rome, Italy. E-mail: salvatore.zaffina@opbg.net ORCID: 0000-0003-0827-6442.
7 Institute of Outcomes Research, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Medical Academy, Warsaw, Poland. Maria Sklodowska-Curie Bialystok Oncology Center, Bialystok, Poland. E-mail: Lukasz.szarpak@gmail.com. ORCID: 0000-0002-0973-5455.
8 Department of Community Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan and University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. E-mail: ileolasteve@yahoo.co.uk. ORCID: 0000-0003-0827-6442.

Abstract

Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of lockdown measures in Italy between the first and the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods: In this observational study, the total number of COVID-19 related deaths drawn by Worldometer and the COVID-19 Stringency Index (SI) were used. Descriptive statistics and student t-test were applied for comparison.
Results: The number of deaths in Italy was higher during the second wave (n = 38,549) compared to the first wave (n = 34,167). During the first wave, the mean SI was significantly higher (M = 79.96, SD = 15.76) compared to the second wave (M = 67.36, SD = 14.17; t = 4.73, P < 0.001).
Discussion and Conclusion: In Italy, a two-wave pattern in the reported COVID-19 during the 2020 pandemic was reported; while lockdown measures were more restrictive during the first wave, the number of COVID-19 related deaths was higher during the second wave. This could be attributable to the relaxation of social distancing measures after the end of the first wave. Our findings may provide precious information to Italian and international stakeholders to address the next waves of COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: COVID-19; Italy; lockdown measures; public health; SARS-CoV-2; Stringency Index. 

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JHSS 2021,6(3):391-402

ORIGINAL ARTICLE IN SOCIAL MEDIA HEALTHCARE INFORMATION

The mediating effects of satisfaction and attitude on consumers’ intent toward adoption of social media healthcare information

Authors: Philomina P. OFORI1, Ethel Asante ANTWI2, Kofi Asamoah OWUSU-ANSAH3

School of Management, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang, 212013, China, Department of Emerging Technologies, Ghana Communication Technology University. E-mail: pofori12@outlook.com. ORCID:000-0001-9233-8153.
2 Department of Management and Human Resource, Ghana Communication Technology University.

E-mail: eyiranbon@gctu.edu.gh. ORCID: 0000-0001-7007-3043.
Graduate School, Ghana Communication Technology University. E-mail: kowusu-ansah@gctu.edu.gh ORCID:0000-0001-6248-2111.

Abstract

Introduction: Social media’s (SM) popularity among consumers has grown over the years. Yet, consumers’ perceptions and actions toward accepting health information from social media platforms are not clear. Consumers’ acceptance of social media healthcare information in Ghana was investigated using the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model. This study integrated the UTAUT model with satisfaction and attitude.
Method: An online survey was conducted by employing a convenience sampling method. An online link containing the questionnaire was sent to participants through social media platforms, and out of the data received, 200 responses were used for this study. The data obtained was analyzed using SmartPLS Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) version 3.0.
Results: Behavior intention (BI) to use social media for healthcare information was significantly predicted by performance expectancy (PE), social influence (SI), and attitude (ATT) with (P < 0.005). ATT mediated the relationship between PE and BI as well as PE and SAT, which explains 83.6% of the variance in consumers’ intention to accept social media healthcare information. ATT had a significant influence on consumers’ use behavior (UB) with satisfaction as the mediator, which explains 68.8% variance in the use behavior of consumers. Likewise, the explaining power of ATT and SAT were 40.1% and 66.6%, respectively. Consumers’ intention to utilize social media for healthcare purposes was influenced by PE, SI, and ATT, while SAT, and ATT had a significant impact on UB among Ghanaian consumers.
Conclusion: Therefore, the outcome offers health providers and professionals in developing countries the avenue to learn about consumers’ perceptions and reactions before introducing social media healthcare broadcasts. 

Keywords: Attitude; healthcare information; satisfaction; social media; UTAUT model.

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JHSS 2021,6(3):403-416

ORIGINAL ARTICLE IN PUBLIC HEALTH

Using Facebook Ads for blindness prevention among people living with diabetes in the United States:
A descriptive study

Authors: Sangeetha RAVI1, Jessica LC SAPP2, Jennifer L SEDILLO3

1 American Public University System, School of Health Sciences, Public Health Program, Charles Town, WV, U.S. E-mail:sangeetha.ravi@mycampus.apus.edu. ORCID: 0000-0001-7849-0853.
2 American Public University System, School of Health Sciences, Public Health Program, Charles Town, WV, U.S. E-mail:jessica.sapp2@mycampus.apus.edu. ORCID: 0000-0002-9351-2499.

3 American Public University System, School of Health Sciences, Public Health Program, Charles Town, WV, U.S. E-mail:jennifer.sedillo@mycampus.apus.edu. ORCID: 0000-0002-4704-9114.

Abstract

Introduction: Early detection and treatment can prevent or delay blindness due to diabetic retinopathy in 90% of people with diabetes. However, 50% or more of them do not get their eyes examined or diagnosed too late for effective treatment. An online health campaign was administered to promote regular eye exams.
Methods: The Blindsighted (BS) health campaign administered from May 2019 to August 2019 included Facebook advertisements, Facebook posts, and an online blog article. The Facebook advertisements included learn more ads, like page ads, and a web-based survey ad. These ads were delivered to three target audiences: 1) at least 18 years old, located in the U.S., 2) at least 18 years old, located in the U.S., with special interests related to diabetes, and 3) 18-55 years of age, located in the U.S. A web-based survey was used to ask Facebook users’ opinions about the BS Survey ad.
Results: The total number of people reached through all 7 Facebook ads was 64,636. There were 88,425 impressions and 1,793 clicks. All ads cost US $ 923.91. The best performing ad campaign was BS Learn More with the BS 2-Diabetes being the best performing ad. When reviewing the correlation of reach and clicks for all ads, there was a strong positive correlation  (r =.90, P =.006) with a slightly more positive correlation when looking at just general audience ads (r = 0.95, P = .047). However, there was no significant correlation when analyzing all ads for the amount spent and results (r = .65, P =.112), amount spent and cost per result (r = .49, P = .262), or amount spent and reach (r =.59, P = .167). There were 11 Facebook posts published which reached 1302 users.
Conclusion: The Blindsighted health campaign highlights that Facebook is favorable to share health information.

Keywords: Advertising as topic; eye; blindness; internet; social media. 

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JHSS 2021,6(3)417-430

ORIGINAL PAPER IN OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY

Sexual harassment by clients experienced by male and female clerks in retail businesses: A qualitative explorative study in an Italian sample 

Authors: Daniela ACQUADRO MARAN1, Antonella VARETTO2

Work and Organizational Psychology, Department of Psychology, Università di Torino, Torino, Italy. ORCID:  0000-0002-9924-4093.
2 Azienda Ospedaliera-Universitaria Città della Scienza e della Salute, Torino, Italy. E-mail: avaretto@cittadellasalute.piemonte.it.

Abstract

Introduction: The aim of this work was to analyse, from a qualitative point of view, the terms used by a sample of male and female clerks to describe their experience of sexual harassment victimization by clients.
Methods: We conducted a qualitative explorative study. Semi-structured interviews were administered to clerks who self-declared victims of sexual harassment in workplace by clients. Fifteen men (aged 30-59 years, M = 38.2 years) and 15 women (aged 24-50 years, M = 37.8 years) were interviewed. They worked in supermarkets (n = 18), clothing stores (n = 4), shoe stores (n = 3), bookstores (n = 1), e-cigarette stores (n = 1), jewellery stores (n = 1), coffee pod stores (n = 1), tobacco stores (n = 1) and mobile accessories stores (n = 1). The text from interviews was analyzed using Alceste 6.0.
Results: As expected, men were more likely than women to describe the insults concerning the sexual sphere as an experience of sexual harassment. At the same time, the experience of victimization described by women was related to terms about approaches to have a sexual relationship.
Discussion and Conclusions: Findings from this investigation could be useful to implement educational measures tailored to clerks. In Italy, education and training on workplace health and safety are mandatory and comprise psychosocial risks. Therefore, preventive measures should be tailored to address workplace violence acted by clients on workers, including coping strategies (e.g., assertive communication and reporting to work management and/or police).

Keywords: Sexual harassment; qualitative investigation; victims; workplace.

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JHSS 2021,6(3):431-444

ORIGINAL ARTICLE IN HIV AND PUBLIC HEALTH

Fear of job loss and anticipated stigma are deterrents for disclosure of HIV serostatus in the workplace; narratives of domestic workers in affluent suburbs of South Africa

Authors: Elsie POS1, Naomi HLONGWANE2, Sphiwe MADIBA1

1 Department of Public Health, School of Health Care Sciences. Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University. Pretoria, South Africa. E-mail: elsiepos037@gmail.com. ORCID:0000-0001-8850-485X.
2 Department of Public Health, School of Health Care Sciences. Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University. Pretoria, South Africa. E-mail: naomihlongwaneot@gmail.com. ORCID: 0000-0003-3045-6407.
3 Department of Public Health, School of Health Care Sciences. Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University. Pretoria, South Africa. Email: sphiwe.madiba@smu.ac.za. ORCID: 0000-0002-3735-1248.

Abstract

Introduction: Domestic work is a large sector of employment for women who are rendered vulnerable to HIV by their disadvantaged backgrounds. The domestic work sector has been identified as one of the areas where disclosure of HIV status remains a challenge. Although South Africa is one of the southern African countries with a sizable number of domestic workers, there is lack of data on issues related to HIV and disclosure in the domestic work sector. This study explored the context within which domestic workers would disclose or conceal their HIV status in the workplace setting and examined the outcome of disclosure to their employers.
Methods: We conducted a qualitative explorative study with domestic workers in an affluent suburb of Gauteng Province of South Africa. We used purposive sampling to recruit 32 domestic workers living with HIV to participate in six focus group discussions. Data analysis was inductive and followed the thematic approach.
Results: All 32 domestic workers were female aged between 20-60 years, 19 were living on the employers’ premises, and nine were migrants from outside the borders of South Africa. The reported positive working relationship with their employers did not translate to disclosure and intentions to disclose in the future. Fear of job loss and stigma and discrimination were the major deterrents to disclose to the employer. Living-in increased the risk of unintended disclosure due to the lack of privacy. The post HIV diagnosis relationship with the employer was characterised by silence, lies, and deceptions in an attempt to protect their serostatus.
Conclusion: The threat of dismissal was distressing for most of the domestic workers, whereas for some the threat of actual dismissal was real. The acts of stigma experienced by the domestic workers call for specific HIV prevention interventions that focus on the domestic work sector.

Keywords: Domestic workers; female; HIV serostatus disclosure; migrant workers; South Africa; stigma; workplace.

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JHSS 2021,6(3):445-452

CASE SERIES IN OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH

Lung ultrasound for monitoring COVID-19 disease in healthcare workers: Less stethoscope and more ultrasound in occupational health

Authors: Maria Rosaria VINCI1, Anna Maria MUSOLINO2, Maria Chiara SUPINO3, Lidia VESCHI4, Arianna SANTO5, Francesco CHIRICO6, Reparata Rosa DI PRINZIO7,#, Salvatore ZAFFINA8,#

1 Health Directorate, Occupational Medicine Unit, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy. E-mail: mariarosaria.vinci@opbg.net ORCID: 0000-0002-2631-4572.
2 Health Directorate, Occupational Medicine Unit, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy. E-mail: amcaterina.musolino@opbg.net. ORCID: 0000-0001-9606-2860.
3 Health Directorate, Occupational Medicine Unit, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy. E-mail: mariachiara.supino@opbg.net. ORCID: 0000-0003-2507-8886.
4 Emergency Department and General Paediatrics, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy. E-mail: lidia.veschi@opbg.net. ORCID: 0000-0002-4991-2380.
5 Emergency Department and General Paediatrics, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy. E-mail: arianna.santo@opbg.net. ORCID: 0000-0003-2507-88866.

6 Post-Graduate School of Occupational Health, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy. Health Service Department, State Police, Ministry of Interior, Italy. E-mail: medlavchirico@gmail.com ORCID:0000-0002-8737-4368.
7 Post-Graduate School of Occupational Health, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy. E-mail: reparatarosa.diprinzio01@icatt.it. ORCID: 0000-0001-5956-1038.
8 Health Directorate, Occupational Medicine Unit, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy. E-mail: salvatore.zaffina@opbg.net. ORCID: 0000-0002-8858-5423.

Abstract

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing the new global pandemic and is responsible for numerous cases of severe pneumonia. Recent evidence has indicated the usefulness of lung ultrasound (LUS) in detecting SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. LUS has several advantages, and in the context of COVID-19 pandemic, point-of-care LUS is particularly useful when the infected subject is forced to complete quarantine at home or patient’s conditions can be monitored only on a clinical basis. In addition, bed approach can also rationalise access to the emergency department only to those who really need hospitalization, reducing the economic burden of the pandemics on healthcare systems. In this paper, we present a case series of healthcare workers with SARS-CoV-2 infection, monitored at home by their occupational physician with point-of-care LUS. According to our experience, this tool can be included in mandatory occupational health surveillance as well as in workplace health promotion programs for monitoring the health of healthcare workers affected by COVID-19 disease and facilitate their return to work. 

Keywords: COVID-19; point-of-care test; SARS-CoV-2; ultrasound imaging.

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